Who Asked the First Question?

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Tbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University Institute of Classical, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies International Research Centre of Traditional Polyphony

Joseph Jordania

WHO ASKED THE FIRST QUESTION?
The Origins of Human Choral Singing, Intelligence, Language and Speech

Logos 2006

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To the memory of Valeri Pavlovich Alexeev and Malkhaz Abdushelishvili

© Programm “Logos”, 2006 © Joseph Jordania, 2006

ISSBN 99940-31-81-3 Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University 13 Chavchavadze ave. 0179 Tbilisi, Geogria

Tel.: (+995 32) 22 11 81/ 25 02 58 Fax: (+995 32) 22 11 81 E-mail: greekstudies@caucasus.net

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Contents
Foreword and acknowledgements 8 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = PART I World Styles of Traditional Polyphony 22 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Foreword 22 Question of terminology and classification 23 Vocal Polyphony in Africa 30 Sub-Saharan Africa (Rhythm; Unity of singing and dancing; Tone languages and polyphony; Characteristics of sub-Saharan polyphony 31 East Africa 36 Central Africa 37 South Africa 39 West Africa 41 Madagascar 43 North Africa 44 Sahara 45 Conclusions 46 Vocal Polyphony in Europe 47 Vocal Polyphony in Eastern Europe 49 Russia 49 Polyphonic traditions of minorities of Russian Federation 54 North Caucasian minorities (Abkhazians; Adighis, Balkarians and Karachaevis; Ossetians; Chechens and Ingushes, Dagestan) 55 The Volga-Ural region minorities of Russian Federation (Mordva; Komi; Mari; Udmurtia; Tatarstan; Bashkiria; Chuvashia) 62 North European minorities of Russian Federation 67 Jews and Rom 67 Ukraine 68 Belarus 72 Georgia (vocal polyphony in Georgia; General and regional characteristics; East Georgia; West Georgia; Improvisation in western Georgian polyphonic songs; Traditional polyphony in Svaneti; Religious music; Urban music; Scale system; Melody in polyphony; Singing men and singing women; Conclusions) 74 Balkans 105 Romania 105 Bulgaria 106 Serbia 108 Montenegro 109 Bosnia and Herzegovina 110 Croatia 111 Slovenia 112 Macedonia 113 Albania 114

4 Greece 116 Vocal Polyphony in North Europe 118 Baltic region 118 Lithuania 119 Latvia 123 Estonia 124 Finland 125 Iceland 126 England 128 Wales 129 Scotland and Ireland 130 Sweden 130 Denmark and Norway 130 Vocal Polyphony in Central Europe 131 Poland 131 Slovakia 131 Czech 132 Germany 132 Austria 133 Switzerland 134 Belgium and Holland 135 Vocal Polyphony in Western Europe 135 France (Breton, Corsica) 135 Portugal 137 Spain (and Basques) 137 Italy (Sicily, Sardinia) 139 Conclusions 142 Vocal Polyphony is Asia 143 Vocal polyphony in the Middle East 144 Pearl divers of the Persian Gulf 145 Polyphony in Jewish music 146 Armenia 148 The Bedouins, Egypt, Turkey 149 Central Asia: Overtone singing 149 Tajikistan (and Kazakhstan) 151 Afghanistan: Nuristan 152 North Asia 154 East Asia 155 Japan: Ainus 155 China 158 Chinese minorities 158 Tibet 160 Taiwan 161 South-East Asia 163 Vietnam 163 Nepal, Burma 164

5 South Asia: India (Assam; Southern India) 164 Conclusions 166 North America: Vocal Polyphony among Native Americans 167 Northwest Coast 167 Eastern Coast 168 Southwestern 168 Plain Indians 168 South America 169 Q’ero 169 Amazonian region 170 Conclusions 172 Polyphonic singing on Pacific Islands 172 Polynesia 172 Tonga 173 Tahiti 174 Smaller islands 174 Melanesia 175 New Guinea 175 Micronesia 176 Australia 176 Conclusions of the first part 176 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = PART II Comparative Perspectives 178 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Introduction: Dialog between regional and comparative studies 178 Brief review of comparative studies and ideas 181 Section 1. Methodological Issues 185 “They sound so similar”, or how could we compare polyphonic traditions 185 What is more stable: Language or music? 187 What are the stable and mobile elements of musical culture?...
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