My problem is to find which flour has the most gluten. My problem is important to me because I like to bake. The problem is important to the world because some bakers may need to use a certain type of flour for the foods they make and I would like to help them out as if I were a professional. My independent variable is the type of flour and my dependent variable is the amount of gluten.
Flour, Wheat, Cereal, and Gluten
Wheat is a worldwide grass that grows out of a kernel, which is a seed. A kernel has multiple parts- bran, germ, and endosperm. The endosperm is the biggest part of the kernel. It is the part of the kernel that will get ground into flour. The gluten comes from the endosperm and is designed to provide protein for the new wheat plant. The germ is the part that will eventually sprout into a new plant. The bran is the hard outer layer of the seed. It serves as the kernel’s “skin” that will protect it from damage. There are different kinds of wheat. One is hard wheat. It has hard kernels that are darkly colored. Soft wheat is recommended for baking and it is not blended with hard wheat. It is very pure. Gluten is made up of gliadin and glutenin. Gliadin is a glycoprotien in wheat and other cereals. Glutenin is a protein that makes up gluten. No, the cereal that is in food is not the one that is eaten for breakfast. Cereal and cereal grains are grasses cultivated for the edible components that they contain. Cereal grains are used in oats, barley, and food products like bread and pasta. Flour is a powder that is ground from many grains. Flour has many components in it. It includes yeast, gluten, and starch. Starch is a polysaccharide carbohydrate containing a large amount of gluten. Yeast is a eukaryotic micro-organism.
The History of Flour and Bread Making
Flour has been around for many years considering that people knew how to make it in the Neolithic Era. The first bread produced was probably just ground cereal grains and water and may have been started accidently. Some parts of the world still use a similar type of bread like pita and tortilla. In history flatbread was mostly eaten because it is simple to make and sometimes religious. The picture below is a type of flatbread. The first flour was made out of
wild grasses and ground with mortar and pestle. Then people learned to cultivate. To cultivate is to prepare and farm for the raising of crops. Many years later people invented mills and flour was then made there. Now bread makers knead the bread and cook it in the oven. To knead bread is to work dough or clay into a mixture using hand movements.
The Importance of Flour
Without flour bread would just be water. Flour is the main component of bread ( besides heat ). Flour is part of a eating habits for a typical person. If the nomads had not learned how to make it, people would not get enough starch and possibly die.
Scientific Terms in Baking
Amino acid is molecules made up of amine and carboxyl functional groups. Carbon dioxide is a chemical made up of two oxygen atoms. Acid, which is different from amino acid, is a chemical compound that when wet creates a hydrogen ion activity. A base is thought of by chemists as an aqueous substance.
A grass family is a large plant family that is defined by the plant types. There are many grass families. Some are barley, wheat, oats, rice, rye, bamboo, sugar cane and more. Most grass families are classified as Poaceae. There are 9,000 to 10,000 species of grasses in the world. Grass can be present in many places, even the ones that cannot be considered grasslands. Estimations say that grasslands cover about twenty percent of the earth.
The image above shows the structure of a grass plant and how it connects to other grass plants. The blade is the top that you see when you...