Atoms are the basic building blocks of ordinary matter. Atoms can join together to form molecules, which in turn form most of the objects around you. Atoms are composed of particles called protons, electrons and neutrons. Protons carry a positive electrical charge, electrons carry a negative electrical charge and neutrons carry no electrical charge at all. The protons and neutrons cluster together in the central part of the atom, called the nucleus, and the electrons 'orbit' the nucleus. A particular atom will have the same number of protons and electrons and most atoms have at least as many neutrons as protons. Protons and neutrons are both composed of other particles called quarks and gluons. Protons contain two 'up' quarks and one 'down' quark while neutrons contain one 'up' quark and two 'down' quarks. The gluons are responsible for binding the quarks to one another.
Where do atoms get their energy from?
If an atom is in constant random motion that means that all atoms have kinetic energy, but according to law of conservation of energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed just tranferred into one form from another. So that means atoms are getting energy from something
An atom is the smallest possible amount of a chemical element—so an atom of gold is the smallest amount of gold you can possibly have. By small, I really do mean absolutely, nanoscopically tiny: a single atom is about 100,000 times thinner than a human hair, so you have absolutely no chance of ever seeing one unless you have an incredibly powerful electron microscope. In ancient times, people thought atoms were the smallest possible things in the world. In fact, the word atom comes from a Greek word meaning something that cannot be split up any further. Today, we know this isn't true. In theory, if you had a knife small and sharp enough, you could chop an atom of gold into bits and you'd find smaller things inside. But then you'd no longer have the gold: you'd just have the...
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