When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures

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When Cultures Collide: LEADING ACROSS CULTURES

Richard D. Lewis

Nicholas Brealey International



When Cultures Collide


LEADING A C R O S S C U LT U R E S



When Cultures Collide


LEADING A C R O S S C U LT U R E S
A Major New Edition of the Global Guide

Richard D. Lewis

First published in hardback by Nicholas Brealey Publishing in 1996. This revised edition first published in 2006. 100 City Hall Plaza, Suite 501 Boston, MA 02108, USA Information: 617-523-3801 Fax: 617-523-3708 www.nicholasbrealey.com 3-5 Spafield Street, Clerkenwell London, EC1R 4QB, UK Tel: +44-(0)-207-239-0360 Fax: +44-(0)-207-239-0370 www.nbrealey-books.com

© 2006, 1999, 1996 by Richard D. Lewis All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission from the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. Printed in Finland by WS Bookwell. 10 09 08 07 06 1 2 3 4 5

ISBN-13: 978-1-904838-02-9 ISBN-10: 1-904838-02-2 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lewis, Richard D. When cultures collide : leading across cultures / Richard D. Lewis.—3rd ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: When cultures collide : managing successfully across cultures. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-904838-02-9 (13-digit isbn, pbk : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-904838-02-2 (pbk : alk paper) 1. International business enterprises—Management—Social aspects. 2. Management—Social aspects. 3. Intercultural communication. I. Title. HD62.4.L49 2005 658'.049—dc22 2005022299

To Jane, Caroline, Richard and David, multicultural all . . .

Contents
✦ Preface to the Third Edition: Us and Them Acknowledgments PART ONE

xv xxiii

Getting to Grips with Cultural Diversity
1 Different Languages, Different Worlds
Appearance and Reality 3 Concepts and Notions 4 Powerful Mental Blocks 7 Language Straitjacket 9 Thought = Internalized Language 11 Humor across Frontiers 12 Humor in Business 14 Making Allowances 15

3

2 Cultural Conditioning
What Is Culture? 17 Culture Shock 19 Who Is Normal, Anyway? 21 It Depends on Our Perception 22

17

3 Categorizing Cultures
Cultural Categories at Cross-Century 27 Linear-Active and Multi-Active Cultures 29 Reactive Cultures 32 Intercategory Comparisons 38 Fine-Tuning Categorization 43 Moving along the LMR Planes 46 Data-Oriented, Dialogue-Oriented and Listening Cultures 48

27

4 The Use of Time
Linear Time 53 Multi-Active Time 55 Cyclic Time 57 Chinese 58 Japanese 59

53

x
Back to the Future 60 Validity of Time Concepts 62

CONTENTS

5 Bridging the Communication Gap
Use of Language 63 The Communication Gap 66 Communication Patterns during Meetings 67 Listening Habits 69 The Language of Management 71

63

6 Manners (and Mannerisms)
Sincerity Helps 82 Dining Etiquette 83 Cocktail Parties 87 Restaurant Behavior 90 Manners in Society 93

81

PART TWO

Managing and Leading in Different Cultures
7 Status, Leadership and Organization
Success or Failure in the Twenty-First Century 101 Leaders 104 Changing Notions of Leadership 105 Cultural Roots of Organization and Leadership 105 Different Concepts of Status, Leadership and Organization 111

101

8 Team Building and Horizons
Team Building 125 Innovation and Change 125 Life within Horizons 128 The Education Factor 131 Language and Culture 132 Horizons, Common Ground and Divergence 133 National Strengths, Insights and Blind Spots 135 Team-Building Exercises 139

125

9 Motivating People and Building Trust
Twenty-First Century Aspirations 142 Product versus Relationship 143 Building Trust 144 High-Trust and Low-Trust Societies 145 Trust in Virtual Teams 148

141

CONTENTS

xi

10 Meetings of the Minds
Beginnings 153 Structuring a Meeting 154 Meeting Behavior and Comportment 156 Body Language 157 Negotiating 161 Decision Making 170 Contracts 172 Solutions 174

153

PART THREE...
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