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A Phenomenological Study on Parent Involvement Using Epstein’s Framework: Its Impact on Pupil’s Performance Mary Grace C. Cape, Gee Rianne B. Pitogo, Cherrie Mae C. Quinio Jacient Mar Cardosa, Kathlene Joy Caño, Carolyn Miot

Cebu Normal University
College of Teacher Education
Educ.15- Introduction to Research

I. INTRODUCTION

Among the most influential factors on the lives of the children are their parents (Zedan, 2011). It is therefore critically important to find out how parents feel about school involvement and how they perceive their roles in such interaction (Radu, 2011). The study of Ashbaugh (2009) stated that parents also take part in controlling all aspects of schooling hand in hand with the community. The involvement of parents is multi-dimensional, and is composed of various types of behavior, attitudes, and parental expectations (Toran-Kaplan, 2004). (Rahman, 2001) Numerous studies confirm the assumption that when parents get involved with their children’s studies, pupils perform better. While research also shows that parental involvement is essential in the education of the children and leads to academic gains (Wright, 2009). Such academic benefits for pupils with their parents involved include higher grades and test scores and positive attitudes about education (Mapp, 2003).

Bakker and Denessen (2007) stated that parental involvement is likened to a concept in social sciences which is a value loaded term Parent involvement is defined as having an awareness of and involvement in schoolwork, understanding of the interaction between parenting skills and student success in schooling, and a commitment to consistent communication with educators about student progress (Pate and Andrews 2006).

A lot of researchers have studied parent involvement and its positive effects to education for many years. The study of Dr. Joyce Epstein (1990) has championed the importance of parent involvement. Her study went beyond normal ideas and discussed the premise stating that parent involvement should go beyond school and home, inviting a partnership between homes, schools and communities (Wright, 2009). In her six types of Parent Involvement framework, Epstein (2001) suggests that parents who are informed and involved in their children’s school can positively impact their child’s attitude and performance. Importantly, her research shows that parental involvement can have a positive impact on student’s academic work at all grade levels.

The six types of involvement interactions that operate within the theory of overlapping spheres act as a framework for organizing behaviors, roles, and actions performed by school personnel and family and community members working together to increase involvement and student achievement (Epstein, 1995; Epstein et al., 2002). These six types of involvement are defined and categorized in the follow ways; Parenting-helping families (e.g., parents and extended family members) to become aware and knowledgeable about child development, and providing resources that enable them to establish home environments that can enhance student learning ; Communicating-effective, appropriate, relevant, two-way contact about school events (e.g., open houses, conferences, testing workshops), student academic or personal development and progress, and/or insight (e.g., success or challenges) within the home environment; Volunteering-organizing and participating in activities initiated by school personnel (e.g., parent- teacher association) or generated by community members aimed at supporting students and school programs, such as service-learning projects, Big Brothers Big Sisters programs, or violence reduction assemblies; Learning at home-providing information to parents and families about school procedures (e.g., homework expectations, grading scales) in order to help them augment their children's academic activities; Decision-making-including parents and family members from all backgrounds as...
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