British History II
“What were the factors that gave the victory to the Allies and the defeat to the Axis in 1945?”
Student: Laura Álvarez
At the beginning of the World War II in 1939, the strength of the German war machine was proven with a quick takeover of Poland. In the following year Germany successfully captured Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and France. In 1941, Hitler invaded Greece and started moving towards North Africa helping his Italian ally Mussolini. Meanwhile, Japanese forces occupied the Philippines, Malaya, Singapore and Burma and challenged the United States by attacking their naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. At this point, the Axis Powers seemed to be invincible and by late 1941, Britain was the only enemy still standing. However, by late 1942 the tables turned and the Axis began to lose ground being finally defeated in 1945. This essay will outline the reasons for the Axis defeat and evaluate their importance. First of all, the Allied Powers played an important role in the defeat of the Axis Powers. The British, Russians and Americans faced common enemies and an alliance was formed in the Casablanca and Tehran Conferences of 1943. This alliance was superior when measuring the resources and military supplies as the American economy was the strongest in the world and had been cooperating with Britain since the Lend-Lease Act of April, 1941 by providing massive financial aid where needed. When the U.S. became officially involved, her large armament represented an important disadvantage for the Axis Powers. The Red Army, when reorganized, became an unexpected resistance against the German invasion which was proven in Stalingrad in 1943. On their part, the British forces made a great contribution by halting Hitler’s army in the Battle of Britain of 1940 which obliged the Germans to fight war on two fronts. Secondly, an important factor that weakened the...