G10 History Internal Assessment:
“What were the consequences of Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War?”
Word Count: 1936
Plan of investigation 3
Summary of evidence 3-4
Evaluation of sources 4-5
What were the consequences of Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War?
A. Plan of investigation
Seventy-two years have passed since the end of the Spanish Civil War and 36 years since the death of Francisco Franco and the birth of a new and democratic Spain. As far as we know, there are no books specifically written about the consequences of the Spanish Civil War. That is what we will try to do in this written account.
Most specialists agree that foreign historians contributed the most to the investigation of the Spanish Civil War, the Post-War repression and Francoism due to the absence of liberties and the presence of censure in Franco’s Spain, which prevented Spanish historians to work on the subject. Therefore, we have selected a series of reference books by prestigious historians and writers such as Stanley Payne, Anthony Beevor and Hugh Thomas and one prominent Spanish historian, Javier Tussell about the Spanish Civil War and Franco, and found the relevant chapters necessary to fulfill our investigation.
B. Summary of evidence
* End of the democratic era in Spain’s history as a result of Franco’s coup d’état against the legitimate authorities; * Establishment of a military dictatorship which lasted 36 year until Franco’s death (no liberties, human rights abuse, repression, political prisoners and concentration camps); * International isolation of Spain by western powers, withdrawal of ambassadors and refusal to the Spanish request of joining the United Nations. Exclusion of Spain from the Marshal Plan of economic aid and reconstruction of Western Europe, which prevented its economic recovery and kept Spanish economy very far from Western European economies until Spain’s entry in the European Union.
* Recovery of social and economic hegemony by industrial, financial and landowning oligarchy; * Loss of rights acquired by workers. Prohibition of trade unions and the right to strike; * Women were excluded from political and social life and were now confined to family and home under Franco’s regime; * The Catholic Church increases its influence and power, becomes present and active in all society layers and controls primary and secondary education; * Loss of intellectuals and scientists due to exile causing cultural impoverishment. * The hatred between the two Spain’s increased. The war and the post-war-suffering and repression destroyed the lives of several generations of Spaniards.
* Most infrastructures were destroyed. Many bridges, roads, ports, electricity, communication and transport networks had to be reconstructed; * Destruction of housing (about 250,000 units or 8% of the total); * A large part of livestock disappeared and the agricultural activity decreased, the result of which was famine in the 40’s. “It has been estimated that agricultural and industrial production fell by 20 and 30% respectively. Arable land also decreased (wheat went down from 4.5 to 3.5 million hectares) as well as livestock (by...
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