What Types of Internal and External Factors Affect Development

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2.1 Explain how development of children and young people is influenced by their range of personal factors. There are two main factors which affect a child and young person’s development. The first is personal factors this can be linked to genetics, health and learning difficulties all of which influence the development of a child. Then there is personality which is linked to the environment which is influenced later on in the development. Genetics

Genetic information about a child is important to know and understand if they have any condition which they were born with, has been passed down through the genes or does the child have any abnormalities which will influence its personal development. For example if a child is born with Downs Syndrome the child will be born with distinguished facial features which will lead to bullying. Nearly all individual with Downs Syndrome experience some type of physical impairment which can affect their cognitive ability and physical growth therefore they will need constant support through daily activities. Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive and non-contagious disability which is also developed at birth due to the brain, the exact severity can vary dramatically. This can affect the motor conditions which can cause physical disability in human development, resulting limits in movement and posture. Learning Difficulties

Learning difficulties are also a personal factor which affects development of a child. This can affect their self-esteem and confidence and will mostly be treated different to other children in the class. For example a child who may have mild learning difficulties will be generally slow to develop language abilities and social behaviour during the pre-school years. They may be slow at acquiring academic skills such as reading, writing and maths which can lead to the child being frustrated as they feel they are not capable of doing simple tasks and need additional support in comparison to other children. This can cause behavioural problems inside and outside the school where parents have to find strategic ways by working with the school so that the Child’s needs are met. Health

Health is also another important factor if a child has either severe or mild health problems it can affect the way child is going to develop both physically and mentally. If a child is born with Asthma, this can affect its breathing. This means when a child takes part in a physical activity they have to use an inhaler when they get breathless the inhaler will open their airways which will help them to breathe easily. A child’s health may be affected during pregnancy if the mother does not sustain a healthy pregnancy and takes the use of drugs or drinks excessive amounts of alcohol this can result to premature birth and a lower birth weight which means that the development rate can be slow too.

2.2 Explain how development of children and young people is influenced by their range of External Factors.

The second factor which can influence the development of children and young people are external factors.

Poverty and deprivation

Poverty and deprivation do have a significant effect on how a child develops in and outside the school. For instance if a child is living in poverty then parents are not able to afford to buy high quality food which means eating minimal or the wrong quality of food can lead to health problems. This can affect the development of the pupil in school by not eating properly they are not able to concentrate in class. If a child is living in high rise council flats they don’t have access to a garden therefore they become deprived of outdoor play and are not able to develop their physical (gross motor skills). Statistics have commonly shown that children who come from deprived and poor backgrounds are less likely to thrive and achieve well in school, as parents find it extremely difficult to manage the child’s needs . This can have a severe impact on all areas of the...
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