Among the various purposes oor reasons for developmemt planning in
developing countries include, market failures, foriegn aid, resource
mobilisationand allocation, attittudianl or psychological impact, the
need to get direction, to measure progress, nation building through
public participation, to avoid conflicts and prevent resource from
being wasted and intergration of markets. Thirwall (1999) and Dubell
(1981) agrees that planning is used as an instrument by which
development is accellerated. Development planning is the progreess
procedure , that is intended to be followed step by step in a
Plan is a programme of action or programme for the strategy of a
national government in applying a system of interferences with the
play of market forces thereby conditioning them in such a way as to
give an upward push to the social progreess.Thirwall (1999) defines
development planning as an ideal way for a government to set out its
development objectives and demonstrate initiative in tackling the
country's development problems. Todaro (1994) defines development
planning as an exercise in which a government chooses social
objectives, then set various targets and finally organises a framework
for implementing, co-ordinating and monitoring development. Thus, from
all thee definitions one might argue that planning is essentially
Developing countries plan development inorder to achieve sustainable
economic growth,achieve a more equitable distribution of income,
generate employment opportunities and restore a country (Thirwall,
1999). a brazillian politician named Dudley Seers argued that yto him,
the importance of planning for development is the reduction of povert,
unemployment and inequality are the reasons. Thus the rationale for
development planning in developing countries is to eradicate poverty
and equitable distribution of resources.
Market failures is one of the purposes behind planninning foe
development in developing countries. Markets in less developing
countries are permeated by imperfections of strucuture and operations.
Commodity and factor markets are often badly organised and the
existencw of distorted prices often means that are a poor reflection
of the real costs of socuiety of th goods, services and resources.
Hence the government may intervene to intergrate markets and modify
prices. Smith (2003) suggested that the absence of a government plan,
markets will leaq to misallocation of present and future resources or
at leas to an allocation that may not be in the best long run social
interests. Hence development planning is done inorder to achieve the
best possible use of scarce resources.
Futhermore, resource mobilisation and allocation is another reason for
development planning in developing countries. Adelman and Morris
(1975) postulates that developing economies cannot afford tom waste
their very limited financial and skilled human resources on
unproductive ventures. Baker (1992) argues thatplanning ensures
appropriate development of indeginous material, human and
institutional resource hence creating employment opportunities.
Skilled workers must be employed where their contribution will be
widely most felt. Hence developing countries should plan development.
Development planning establishes a yardstick for measuring success.
Dubell (1981) says that people plan inorder to reach goals and
objectives. Thus development planning acts as a guiding line in
achieving developmental goals and objectives. Black and White (2005)
argues that Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) act as a measure for
succeess with numerical and time bound targets and these...