What Is Scientific Method Use for

Topics: Citric acid, Vinegar, Acid Pages: 2 (271 words) Published: December 12, 2011
Antron Brown


What liquids cleans pennies the best?


I want to see which liquid pine-sol, vinegar, or lemon juice can get the rust off the penny to make it shine like brand new.

Hypothesis – I think the vinegar would clean the penny better than the lemon juice or pine-sol. I think the lemon juice will not do anything at all and the pine-sol will just make the penny smell good.

• 3 plastic cups
• Vinegar
• Lemon juice
• Lemon pine-sol
• 3 dirty pennies
• Composition book


Vinegar is a versatile liquid which results from the fermentation of ethanol. The main ingredient of vinegar is acetic acid which makes it an acidic taste.

Lemon juice is made from fresh lemons squeezed to get the juice out.  It’s essentially made up of citric acid and lemons.

Pine Sol and generally other kinds of household cleaners are prepared with a custom blend of pine oil or scent water and ammonia. Various cleaners use different kinds of additives for decreasing streaks or leaving a pleasant scent.

A new penny is partially made from bright, polished copper. But after awhile, pennies loses its shine. Why? When the copper combines with the oxygen in the air and makes a covering called an oxide. When you put the penny in lemon juice the acid in the lemon chemically eliminated the oxide and you're left with a bright copper penny.





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