What Is Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Clinical psychology Pages: 16 (1232 words) Published: December 23, 2014
Introduction to
Chapter One

Chapter Outline

What is Psychology ?
Subdisciplines of Psychology
The Origins of Psychology
Ways of Thinking About Mind, Body, and
No One Perspective Tells the Whole
Story in Psychology
Bringing It All Together: Making
Connections in Psychology

What is Psychology?

Psychology defined
– Psychology is the scientific study of
thought and behavior
– Literature…..
– History…..
– Sociology…..

Why Should You Study

Makes you more aware of how people
Makes you more aware of how you
Can help you be more effective in
various career paths
Can help you relate better to others,
including family members and

Subdisciplines of

Subdisciplines of

Cognitive psychology
– Study of how we perceive information, how
we learn and remember, how we acquire and
use language, and how we solve problems

Developmental psychology
– Study of how thought and behavior change
and show stability across the life span

Behavioral neuroscience
– Study of the links among brain, mind, and

Subdisciplines of

Biological psychology
– Study of the connections between bodily
systems and chemicals, and their
relationship to behavior and thought

Personality psychology
– Study of what makes people unique and
the consistencies in people’s behavior
across time and situations

Subdisciplines of

Social psychology
– Study of how the real or imagined presence of
others influences thought, feeling, and behavior

Clinical psychology
– Study of the treatment of mental, emotional,
and behavioral disorders and ways to promote
psychological health

Counseling Psychology

Similar to clinical psychology, but may work with
less severe psychological disorders

Subdisciplines of

Health psychology
– Study of the role that psychological
factors play in physical health and

Educational psychology
– Study of how students learn, the
effectiveness of particular teaching
techniques, the dynamics of school
populations, and the psychology of

Subdisciplines of

Industrial/organizational (I/O)
– Applies psychological concepts and
questions to work settings
Industrial side – focuses on selecting
workers, matching employees to jobs,
and evaluating job performance
 Organizational side – focuses on worker
satisfaction, performance, and
productivity by examining management
styles and work environment

Subdisciplines of

Sports psychology
– Examines the psychological factors
that affect performance and
participation in sports and exercise

Forensic psychology
– Field that blends psychology, law,
and criminal justice

The Origins of

A Brief History of the Practice
of Clinical Psychology

Prehistoric Views
– Shamans

Medicine men or
Treated mental
problems by driving out
Might use Trephination
– Drilling a small hole in
a person’s skull to
release spirits and

A Brief History of the Practice
of Clinical Psychology

Ancient Views
– Moved away from supernatural and toward
natural and physiological explanations of
psychological disorders

Ancient Chinese
– Made connections between bodily organs and

Ancient Egyptians and Greeks
– Used narcotics to treat pain


A Brief History of the Practice
of Clinical Psychology

Medieval to Early Modern Views
– Middle Ages

Supernatural causes were blamed (again!)
The Renaissance
– People were thought to be possessed by
demons, spirits, and the devil – not physical

The Inquisition

– Float test for witchcraft

Asylums – facilities for the mentally ill

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