What Is Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Clinical psychology Pages: 16 (1232 words) Published: December 23, 2014
Introduction to
Psychology
Chapter One

Chapter Outline









What is Psychology ?
Subdisciplines of Psychology
The Origins of Psychology
Ways of Thinking About Mind, Body, and
Experience
No One Perspective Tells the Whole
Story in Psychology
Bringing It All Together: Making
Connections in Psychology

What is Psychology?


Psychology defined
– Psychology is the scientific study of
thought and behavior
– Literature…..
– History…..
– Sociology…..

Why Should You Study
Psychology?








Makes you more aware of how people
work
Makes you more aware of how you
work
Can help you be more effective in
various career paths
Can help you relate better to others,
including family members and
friends.

Subdisciplines of
Psychology

Subdisciplines of
Psychology


Cognitive psychology
– Study of how we perceive information, how
we learn and remember, how we acquire and
use language, and how we solve problems



Developmental psychology
– Study of how thought and behavior change
and show stability across the life span



Behavioral neuroscience
– Study of the links among brain, mind, and
behavior

Subdisciplines of
Psychology


Biological psychology
– Study of the connections between bodily
systems and chemicals, and their
relationship to behavior and thought



Personality psychology
– Study of what makes people unique and
the consistencies in people’s behavior
across time and situations

Subdisciplines of
Psychology


Social psychology
– Study of how the real or imagined presence of
others influences thought, feeling, and behavior



Clinical psychology
– Study of the treatment of mental, emotional,
and behavioral disorders and ways to promote
psychological health



Counseling Psychology


Similar to clinical psychology, but may work with
less severe psychological disorders

Subdisciplines of
Psychology


Health psychology
– Study of the role that psychological
factors play in physical health and
illness



Educational psychology
– Study of how students learn, the
effectiveness of particular teaching
techniques, the dynamics of school
populations, and the psychology of
teaching

Subdisciplines of
Psychology


Industrial/organizational (I/O)
psychology
– Applies psychological concepts and
questions to work settings
Industrial side – focuses on selecting
workers, matching employees to jobs,
and evaluating job performance
 Organizational side – focuses on worker
satisfaction, performance, and
productivity by examining management
styles and work environment


Subdisciplines of
Psychology


Sports psychology
– Examines the psychological factors
that affect performance and
participation in sports and exercise



Forensic psychology
– Field that blends psychology, law,
and criminal justice

The Origins of
Psychology

A Brief History of the Practice
of Clinical Psychology


Prehistoric Views
– Shamans






Medicine men or
women
Treated mental
problems by driving out
demons
Might use Trephination
– Drilling a small hole in
a person’s skull to
release spirits and
demons

A Brief History of the Practice
of Clinical Psychology


Ancient Views
– Moved away from supernatural and toward
natural and physiological explanations of
psychological disorders


Ancient Chinese
– Made connections between bodily organs and
emotions



Ancient Egyptians and Greeks
– Used narcotics to treat pain



Hippocrates

A Brief History of the Practice
of Clinical Psychology


Medieval to Early Modern Views
– Middle Ages



Supernatural causes were blamed (again!)
The Renaissance
– People were thought to be possessed by
demons, spirits, and the devil – not physical
disorders



The Inquisition

– Float test for witchcraft



Asylums – facilities for the mentally ill

–...
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