What is Propaganda?

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COURSE: INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS
COURSE CODE: LC207
What is Propaganda?
Propaganda according to Quarters (1962) is defined as the deliberate attempt by some individuals or group to form, control or alter the attitudes of other group by the use of instruments of communication with the intention that in any given situation the reaction of those so influenced will be that desired by the propagandist. Propagandas are persuasions done in sole favour of the sender not in the interest of the receiver. Propaganda Techniques:

According to Damotab (1985), “the techniques are used to make information exert the required effect; to make people take it seriously or believe it...what is important to the Propagandist is the form of conveying the truth rather than the truth itself” Various Propaganda techniques according to Lee and Lee (1939): Transfer, card stacking, band wagon; according to Damotab: Obsessions selection, mass government etc. 1.Transfer: This technique works by transferring the authority, sanction and prestige of something or somebody respected and revered to something else in order to make the later acceptable. E.g. Is during the regime of Babangida as the head of state he used eminent personalities to attract support for some of its programmes and policies. He paired the personalities and the programmes like Wole Soyinka a Nobel Laureate Chaired the Federal Road Safety Corps and The Peoples Bank chaired by Tai Solarin a popular and respected critic. 2.Card stacking: This entails presenting only one side of information that may likely contradict the position being advocated. In doing so, arguments are made one-sided and brought out in detail or emphasized and the other side of it scantily treated or not presented at all. E.g. The coverage of the Third Term debate by NTA Network which was obviously in favour of the government which wanted tenure elongation. 3.Bandwagon: According to Lee and Lee (1939) this device adopts the argument...
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