Human Growth & Development
10:30 a.m. – 12:45 p.m.
Journal of Personality
What Is More Important for National Well-Being: Money or Autonomy? A Meta-Analysis of Well-Being, Burnout, and Anxiety Across 63 Societies
Ronald Fischer and Diana Boer
Year, Volume, Pages
2011, Vol. 101, No. 1, 164–184
Why was the study conducted?
The study was conducted to see if people would rather have money or basically have freedom, which also means self-government.
What was the hypothesis?
“The authors examined national levels of well-being on the basis of lack of psychological health, anxiety, and stress measures.”
What were the independent variables and dependent variables? The independent variable is that “Data are available for 63 countries, with a total sample of 420,599 individuals. Using a 3-level variance-known model, the authors found that individualism was a consistently better predictor than wealth, after controlling for measurement, sample, and temporal variations.” The dependent variables are that individualism is consistently associated with more well-being. Wealth may influence well-being only via its effect on individualism.”
What procedures and method were implemented?
Methods implemented were literature search in which they research different articles and used what is called GHQ (General Health Questionnaire) which was used between 1972 – December 2005. Study Characteristics was used as well by “The mean age of study participants was 37 years (SD _ 13.71), and 45% of them were male. Information on age was missing from 38% (k _ 151) of the articles, and gender information was missing from 16% (k _ 65) of the articles. Missing information was substituted with the mean. Information on the year of data collection was available in 120 studies. Year of data collection correlated with the unweighted GHQ scores (r _ .45, p _ .001). For analyses, we substituted missing information with the...