The management/control stages of a project belong to the sphere of project implementation. The main of a project is the accomplishment of avowed objective/objectives normally within a given time and specified budget. To secure this, the activities .of various organizationally and physically dispersed groups need to be brought together and their functions coordinated so that the project can be kept to the track and made to progress towards its objectives. This is the job of project management or control.
Some of the important functions of project management are to “plan, organize, coordinate, monitor and control activities and resources”. Project management also involves making appropriate decisions based oh the available data and present constraints The performance of these functions requires the evaluation and setting up of a project management system.. Such a system acts as the tool or mechanism “to develop a product, facility or system from its concept to its realization it consists of policies, procedures, Informations, methods, systems and practices used to initiate and implement projects”
Control is thus one of the micro units of the implementation stage of a project and is used as a tool of management to ensure that all activities are on schedule and if problems arise management is a re of it and remedial action can be taken accordingly
1.2 Place of Implementation
In the project Cycle
Before going into the implementation phase of the project cycle, it would he relevant here to first discuss the concept of the project cycle, and the inter-relationships between the different phases.
The, concept of the project cycle was brought in to prominence by W C Baum. It describes the cycle that projects pass through From their initial conceptualization to implementation and evaluation There are five main steps in the cycle which include A) Identification, B) preparation/planning, C) appraisal, D) implementation, and E) evaluation
This is the stage where potential projects are identified and the cycle is set into motion.. Prior to this is the stage of the project’s concept definition wherein the “Project Idea” is generated. This stage essentially expresses the country’s development objectives in the form of projects Obviously the pre-requisites of doing so are an awareness of the country’s resource base, development objectives and the available. options. This stage blends into the identification stage where projects may be identified on the following bases:
a)Resources: Where projects emerge due to the availability of resources.
b) Market: Where projects emerge owing to the existence of the market for the output (domestic or international)
c) Translating the Objectives of the National Plans into Operational Units Where the projects to be set up are already identified and reflected in the sectoral or regional programmes
d) Investment opportunities: Where project tends to emerge or get identified as a result of the existence of these opportunities
e) Defence Needs: Some projects are identified to serve the defence needs of the country
f) Political Pressure :Sometimes political pressures are exerted to meet local needs through specific projects This leads to the identification of potential projects, again on the basis of demand and supply factors and such other factors as favor the location of activities.
g) Ad Hoc Bases :Where the idea of a project emerges without any prior plans or to meet emergencies Like national calamities’, etc
Eventially,the idea’ of a project becomes a specific proposal.
The steps in the identification process are as given below:
Evaluation of the present situation: This gives a picture of the development potentials of the project idea along with the constraints. The evaluation takes into consideration the geographic lay-out of the project area along with...