Wordcount - 2988|
Notburga Hilber - 12548185|
1.What is creativity?3
1.2 Definition by Guilford3
1.3 Creativity and entrepreneurship4
1. Creativity and innovation5
2.1 European Year of Creativity and Innovation5
2.2 Distinction between creativity and innovation5
2.3 Innovation, entrepreneurship and creativity6
3. Creativity and the success of enterprise6
3.1 Freedom versus boundaries6
3.2 Creativity and the structure of enterprise7
3.3 Listening to the users8
What is creativity? Why is it important in the success of enterprise and innovation and how can it be efficiently and effectively managed?
1. What is creativity?
Creativity is a term used very frequently nowadays. If we see a work of an artist, we often talk about creativity, beauty farms offer creative nail designs, creative workshops are in trend, firms are preaching their creative new inventions and the capability of creative problem solving seems to be vital for a large number of jobs. But what is creativity? It might be surprising that the concept of creativity has been neglected for a long time and only recently there have been attempts to delimit the idea of creativity and show the boundaries of its definition.
The English word, "create", derives from the Indo-European root, “ker, kere” to grow, via the Latin, “creation or creates” to make or grow (Weiner, 2000: 41). In its beginnings encapsulating the idea of biological fruitfulness, "create" ultimately came to mean "to bring something new into being." The Greeks used just the expression „poein“- to make. This is most certainly related to their concept of art and the idea of inspiration by muses, according to which even the artist did not invent something new, but merely imitated. The Romans, on the other hand, made a distinction between „facere“ (to make) and „creare“(create, bring into being; institute; conjure up; be born; produce, bear fruit; bring about). The different significance of these two terms was later on underlined in the Christian period, where „creatio“ was used to indicate „God´s act of creation out of nothing“ – „creatio ex nihilio“ - as described in the Genesis. Only in the Renaissance, when humanists started to assert the genius of man, the notion has been designated to human acts as well. At first, mainly in relation to art, literature and poetry or music, creativity has been implemented in science, technological innovation, sociology, politics and economy.
1.2 Definition by Guilford
Joy Paul Guilford is often considered to have started the study of creativity in 1950, when he became head of the American Psychological Association. He was the first to approach the topic from a scientific point of view and tried to measure creativity by psychometric testing. He looked into the subject of divergent thinking (thinking in divergent directions in order to find new solutions to problems), in contrast to convergent thinking (thinking that weighs alternatives within an existing model to find one best solution). He came to the conclusion that this was only possible in association with fluency (the ability of producing a great number of ideas in a short period of time), flexibility (the ability to simultaneously propose a variety of approaches to a specific problem), originality (the ability to produce new, original ideas) and elaboration (the ability to systematize and organize the details of an idea in a head and carry it out) (Glover et al, 1989: 116). Alva Edison had a clear vision about what he wanted to find. After various experiments, through his persistency he was able to reach his goal and finally improved – not invented as often claimed – the electric light bulb and made it practical, economical and safe. The attributes given by...