April 1, 2013
Brenda Van Wyck, Psy.D
Cognitive psychology was first introduced in the publication of Cognitive Psychology written by Ulric Neisser in 1967. It is defined as a part of psychology that revolves around the desire to know and understand the internal processes of the human mind, what makes us tick. Cognitive psychology focuses on how humans process information, through stimuli and responses. Psychologists study internal processes that include perception, attention, language, memory and thinking (McLeod, 2007). Some key milestones with the development of cognitive psychology include: the crumbling of behaviorism, the computer metaphor and information processing, abstract construction of artificial intelligence, and neuroscience. Behaviorism is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. It combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory (McLeod, 2007). The computer metaphor and information processing is main idea for cognitive psychology, because the human brain of information processing is resembled with a computer. The information processing approach portrays thinking as the environment providing input of data, which then alters our senses (McLeod, 2008). Abstract construction of Artificial intelligence is theoretical sets of processes, representations and development of computer systems that are able to perform tasks that normally requires human intelligence, such as visual perception, in an abstract (nonconcrete) kind of way. Some applications of artificial intelligence are game playing (like master level chess), speech recognition, computer vision, or heuristic classification (McCarthy, 2007). Neuroscience studies how the nervous system develops, its structure and what it does. It focuses on the brain and its impact on behavior and cognitive functions (Nordqvist, 2012). Several major branches of modern neuroscience...