However, change is an organizational reality. Handling change is an integral part of every manager’s job. But what can a manager change? The options essentially fall into one of three categories: altering structure, technology, or people.
Categories of Change:
Structure: Authority relationships, Coordinating mechanisms, Job redesign, Spans of control +
Technology: Work processes Work methods Equipments
People: Attitudes Expectations Perceptions Behavior.
Forces of change:
We will point out both external and internal forces constrain managers. These same forces also bring about the need for change. Let’s briefly review these factors.
What External Forces create a need to change?
The external forces that create the need for change come from various sources. In recent years, the marketplace has affected firms such as Indian Airlines and BSNL by introducing new competition. Indian airlines for example, is facing competition not only from other comparable carries like Jet Airways and Kingfishers, but also from low cost airlines like Air Deccan and SpiceJet. BSNL is experiencing competition from private service providers like Airtel, as well as mobile service...