What Did Agustus Do to Reform Roman Politics, Military, Economic, Society and Religion

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Section BName:____________________
Draw a typical growth curve from the moment you inoculate a small amount of bacteria into a culture tube with some fresh media until the culture begins to die. Remember to clearly label the axis of your graph. (6 pts)


Arrange the following in order of increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatment, starting with the LEAST resistant one. (1). Escherichia coli (2) Staphylococcus epidermidis (3) Flu virus (with envelope) (4) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (5) Bacillus anthracis spores (5 pts) ANS;

• Bacillus anthracis spores
• Mycobacterium tuberculosis

• Flu virus (with envelope
• Escherichia coli
• Staphylococcus epidermidis
• Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Describe how you can use the Ames test for mutagenicity to determine if a compound is potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic (6 pts) • use a culture of bacteria that requires supplement of histidine to grow (his-). This strain of bacteria will not grow on minimal media with no histidine added • His- mutants may spontaneously revert to His+ by back mutation and the bacteria can be grown on minimal media again • If a chemical added increases the frequency of back mutation from His- to His+, the chemical may enhance mutations and hence a potential mutagen and carcinogen

Discuss why high salt or high sugar concentration solutions can be used for preserving food (3 pts)

Ans ; ): Hypertonic solution causes water to drain out of the cells and plasmolysis of cells e.g. salted fish, canned fruits in syrup.


The WHO has recently warned that antibiotics are losing effectiveness because of emergence of resistance by bacteria. State any 3 “bad” human practices and explain how these practices can contribute to increased resistance to antibiotics by bacteria (6 pts) Ans

• Due to...