What are the problems of continued urbanisation?
Discuss in relation to one area of the world and evaluate the possible solution.
Urbanisation is a global problem with various impacts in different fields. “Urbanisation is the transformation of society from rural life to life in towns and cities” McDonald and McMillen (2010, p.8). The United Nations published, that in 1950 there was 2.54 billion of the population which equivalent to 29.1% of the world population was living in cities, but this percentage increased to 48.6% that means 6.5 billion of the world’s population in 2005. This indicates that the number of urban people had doubled about four times from 739 million in 1950 to 3.16 billion in 2005. It is expected to become the majority of population living in developed regions (McDonald and McMillen, 2010).With these facts it seems necessary to take reactions in order to cope with continued urbanisation. The continued urbanization does cause many problems in rural areas and urban areas for instance population, pollution and poverty these problems will be discussed in this essay also it seems not to stop in near future because of policy of development around the world. This essay will discuss various problems caused by urbanization also discuss possible solutions with evaluation for each solution in relation to the developing countries in Africa.
First of all, this paragraph will discuss population as a problem of continued urbanization and present establishing new campus as solution for this problem then evaluate it to determine the extent of its success. It is clear that people move from their original homes to other homes in order to live in better situation. As a result, the number of cities’ dwellers increasing dramatically. According to Narasaiah (2006), only the capital city of United Kingdom London, had one million in 1800 but in the present time there are 326 cities around the world have the same number or more also 14 mega-city. Here some examples of African developing countries’ cities which suffer from persistent urbanisation with over one million people in each city such as Cairo (12million), Tripoli, Abidjan, Addis Ababa and Dar-es- Salaam (McMillen and McMillen, 2010). On other hand, these numbers are normal results of high birth rates and low death rates in the same time, and the lack of health and education services in rural regions encourages people to immigrate. In addition 50% of world’s population lives in developed settlements because of high level of services in education and health and employment (Prakass et al, 2010). Therefore, it seems the African national government responsibility to solve this problem by constructing residential buildings in the suburbs areas especially around cities which suffer urbanisation. By this step population could be attracted out from the city centre to around the city at the same time government has to support or develop the education and health services in order to encourage dwellers to live in these areas. Furthermore, after a while this idea could be developed to include small cities and towns and this is useful in re-distribution of population in these African developing countries. Unfortunately, this solution needs a long period and financial support which must of African developing countries, might not have the sustainability to arrange such as these projects. That absorbing all the massive numbers of migrants especially in the slums. So, this solution could help in solving this problem but not to solve this problem radically. This problem of population causes anther problems as pollution which will be the next discussed problem. Secondly, pollution will be discussed as a problem of the high rates of population in African developing urban regions especially in mega cities as Cairo the largest city. Furthermore, the population has negative effects on the environment indirectly and it not the main problem. “Urbanisation by itself...
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