What are the differences between Europeanization and European Integration?
The European Union (EU) has attracted much scholarly interest since it’s founding in the 1950’s. It is an organisation unlike any other, and with currently twenty-five members, holds a great deal of influence on the continent. This research paper shall look at two key fields of study within European studies; these are European Integration and Europeanization. Despite the similarity in the terms, these are two fields are linked, but are distinctly different. For European Integration, researchers have focused on how European States have become integrated and why this happened. Scholars in Europeanization follow on from this and focus of how European integration has affected the domestic policies of EU member States. Within this paper, one shall examine the two terms in order to understand what each one entails, which in turn should, demonstrate the differences between.
European Integration: A process by which European States become closely linked by economical, political and social policies, created within the framework of the European Union.
According to McCormick, there are four reasons why integration takes place: 1. When there is little choice (By force.)
2. When there is a need for security or the presence of a common threat. 3. When there are shared values and goals.
4. When it is seen as effectively promoting peace and there are benefits to be gained.
It is understood that it was the first two reasons were responsible for the beginnings of European integration. Integration was not driven by a major goal and was achieved through small steps. Its origins lie in the aftermath of the Second World War, when the mood on the continent, was the desire for peace. States understood that there was a need for co-operation in Europe instead of the previous pre-war competition and rivalry. Functionalists who theorise on integration, such as Mittrany, focus on the idea of co-operation. Functionalists believe that if States work together in certain areas, and create a body to oversee it, there will be co-operation in other areas caused by the ‘invisible hand’ of co-operation. This theory was similar to Jean Monnet’s (1888 – 1979) thinking, who is considered the founder of European Integration. He noted the importance of co-operation and collective action to solve problems, and saw this as central to peace. Co-operation took the form of regional integration based on the idea that if you make States interdependent, there will be less chance of conflict.
The first steps of integration were formed in the Schuman Declaration, drafted by Monnet. The aim of Monnet and Robert Schuman (1886-1963) was to get European States to work together in certain sectors, and to solve the Franco-German problem. Monnet believed that economic prosperity was best achieved at the European level, not the national. This required Germany to be economically reconstructed, but this posed a threat to France. The declaration proposed that Germany be reconstructed under the auspices of a supranational organisation and integrate its economy with other European States, making it economically reliant on Europe. This removed the potential threat Germany posed to France and allowed the State to be reconstructed necessary for European wealth. The declaration focused on the coal and steel industries and resulted in the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951. This was a significant step in founding a united Europe and Schuman stated: “this proposal will leads to the realization of the first concrete foundation of a European federation.” Six States joined the ECSC and it was the first form of economic integration in Europe.
What was equally significant about the ECSC was the institutional machinery introduced with it. This consisted of the Commission (then named the High Authority), Council of (national) Ministers,...
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