Topics: Native Americans in the United States, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indian reservation Pages: 54 (17357 words) Published: April 13, 2013

Early European Contacts Treaties and Warfare
A Global View
Australia’s Aboriginal People

Reservation Life and Federal Policies Collective Action American Indian Identity Listen to Our Voices
Powwows and Karaoke

Native Americans Today
Research Focus
Learning the Navajo Way

Healthcare Religious and Spiritual Expression

How Did Early Contact with European Culture Impact Native Americans? What Role Have Treaties Played? How Do Federal Policies Effect Reservation Life? What Collective Action Has Been Taken? What Is American Indian Identity? Is Economic Development Happening? What Are the Challenges with Education? What Contributes to Health Care Problems? How Are Religion and Spirituality Expressed? What the Environmental Issues Are for Native Americans? ISBN 1-256-63918-4


Racial and Ethnic Groups, Thirteenth Edition, edited by Richard T. Schaefer. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Native Americans: The First Americans
The original inhabitants of North America were the first to be subordinated by the Europeans. The Native Americans who survived contact with the non-Indian people usually were removed, often far away, from their ancestral homes. The U.S. government weakened tribal institutions through a succession of acts, beginning with the Allotment Act of 1887. Even efforts to strengthen tribal autonomy, such as the 1934 Reorganization Act, did so by encouraging Native Americans to adopt White society’s way of life. More recent relations between Native Americans and non-Indians have been much the same, as shown by such measures as the Termination Act and the Employment Assistance Program. Today, the pan-Indian movements speak for a diverse Native American people with many needs: settlement of treaty violations, economic development, improved educational programs, effective healthcare, religious and spiritual freedom, control over natural resources, and greater self-rule. ISBN 1-256-63918-4

Racial and Ethnic Groups, Thirteenth Edition, edited by Richard T. Schaefer. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.


148 Chapter 6

Native Americans: The First Americans
Listen to the Chapter Audio on mysoclab.com

hen Ryan Wilson enters the Hinono’ Eitiino’ Oowu’—that is, the Arapaho Language Lodge—in Riverton, Wyoming, he is on a survival mission. His task is to teach both children and adults their native language. Because the Arapaho language is no longer spoken fluently by anyone under the age 55, it is in danger of dying out with its few surviving speakers. Ryan Wilson is one face of native peoples in the United States. William Blackie’s money ran out near midnight on a June day in 2006 in Farmington, New Mexico. A 46-year-old Navaho, he made his way home on foot only to encounter three White youths who offered to give him a ride if he would buy them beer with their money. Actually, as they admitted later, they were looking for a victim. Soon the boys headed out of town, dragged him out of the car, and beat him while shouting racial epithets at him. Eventually, the attackers tired of hitting Blackie and left him in the desert. Fortunately, he was able to soon contact the police who eventually found the attackers through anonymous tips. The attackers were eventually all convicted of felony assault and kidnapping, although hate crime charges were dropped. The rate of reported violent crime among American Indians and Alaska Natives is 100 per 1,000 persons, meaning one out of 10 has been a victim of violence. That rate is twice as high as the rate for Blacks, two and a half times higher than Whites, and four and a half times higher than Asians. William Blackie is also one face of the native peoples of the United States. Dustina Abrahamson Edmo (pictured below) has reason to be happy. A member of the Shoshone–Bannock tribe, she is graduating from Haskell Indian Nations University in Kansas....
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