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Class 8 History Ch 9 Women, Caste and reform

Q1. What social ideas did the following people support?
a)Rammohun Roy
Spread of Western education
Reforming Hinduism
Greater freedom and equality for women
Upliftment of widows
Campaigned against the practise of sati
Critical of caste inequalities

b)Dayanand Saraswati
ReformingHinduism
Supported widow remarriage
Education for girls

c) Veerasalingam Pantulu
Supported widow remarriage

d)Jyotirao Phule
Education for girls
Critical of the caste system
Critical of all forms of inequality

e)Pandita Ramabai
Critical of the treatment of upper-caste Hindu women and widows

f) Periyar
Campaigned against caste and social inequalities
Critical of Hindu scriptures

g)Mumtaz Ali
Promoting women’s education

h)Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar
Supported widow remarriage
Education for girls
Q2. State whether true or false:
(a)When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance or property, etc.True (b)Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practises.False (c)Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country.False (d)The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1829.False Q3.How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws? Ans: The reformers believed that changes were necessary in society, and unjust practises needed to be done away with. They thought that the best way to ensure such changes was by persuading people to give up old practises and adopt a new way of life. Whenever they wished to challenge a practise that seemed harmful, they tried to find a verse or a sentence in the ancient sacred texts that supported their point of view. They then suggested that the practise as it existed was against early tradition. For example, Rammohun Roy used ancient texts to show that the practise of sati or widow burning had no sanction. Similarly, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar used ancient texts to suggest that widows could remarry. Q4. What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school? Ans: The following were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school. (a) They feared that schools would take girls away from home, thereby preventing them from doing their domestic duties. (b) They felt that travelling through public places in order to reach school would have a corrupting influence on girls. (c) They felt that girls should stay away from public spaces. Q5.Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons? Like the reformers, the Christian missionaries too were involved in different reform activities. They set up schools for the underprivileged sections of society like the “lower”castes and tribal groups. They questioned the various social injustices. Like the reformers, they too were opposed by the various conservative sections of society. Their attempts at reformation would have been seen by many as an attempt to destabilise the existing Indian social order. Their reform activities would also have been looked at with greater suspicion because of the close link between their religion and their actions. Many would have felt that at the heart of their actions was the agenda of religious conversion. So, the missionaries would naturally have been attacked by many people across the country. However, as in the case of the reformers, there would also have been many who would have supported the Christian missionaries and their activities. A majority of this support base would have consisted of those very people who benefited from the reform activities of the missionaries, such as the untouchables. Intellectuals and reformers who themselves were involved in various reform activities would also have supported the missionaries. Q6. In the British period, what new opportunities...
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