Study guide Chapter 23
1. Martin Luther
2. John Calvin
3. Henry VIII
7. Protestant Reformation
8. Catholic Reformation
9. Thirty Years’ War
10. Spanish Armada
11. Spanish Inquisition
1. What theological concerns prompted Martin Luther’s challenge of the Catholic Church? What specific reforms did he advocate?
2. What were the circumstances of the English Reformation?
3. By the end of the 16th century, which European countries had become Protestant and which had remained Catholic?
4. List reasons for widespread persecution of suspected witches in the 16th and 17th centuries?
5. Why was Charles V unable to establish a durable empire? What forces worked against such an empire in the 16th century?
6. How did European monarchs increase their power in the early modern era? What are some of the common characteristics of the new monarchs?
7. Explain the fundamental difference between absolute monarchy and a constitutional government?
8. What factors encouraged the evolution of a constitutional government in England and the Netherlands?
9. How did Louis XIV maintain control over the nobles of France? What were some of the structures of absolutism during his reign?
10. What aspects of European culture did Peter I seek to graft onto Russian society? What aspects did he reject?
11. What factors led to the dramatic population growth of Europe between 1500 and 1700?
12. What are the characteristics of capitalism in the early modern age? What financial innovations supported the growth of capitalism in Europe?
13. What are some of the social changes that resulted from the growth of capitalism? What groups would have been most threatened...
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