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chapter 9

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

__C_1.Motives activate behavior and propel the organism
a.|to flee.|c.|toward goals.|
b.|to respond.|d.|to drives.|

___D_2.Psychologists define hypothetical states that activate behavior and propel one towards goals as a.|needs.|c.|drives.|
b.|motives.|d.|incentives.|

__A__3.Motives are described as hypothetical states because a.|they cannot be seen or measured directly.|
b.|they cannot be measured.|
c.|there is no theory of motivation.|
d.|they are questionable.|

___D_4.Motives can take the form of
a.|needs, drives, and incentives.|c.|stimuli, events, and actions.| b.|requirements, desires, and impulses.|d.|both a and b|

___A_5.Examples of physiological needs are
a.|oxygen, food, water and proper temperature.|
b.|love, esteem and finances.|
c.|waste elimination.|
d.|both a and c|

___D_6.Motives are believed to give rise to
a.|incentives.|c.|behavior.|
b.|drives.|d.|needs.|

__B__7.Needs can be described as
a.|physiological and psychological.|c.|psychological and spiritual.| b.|physiological and biological.|d.|permanent states.|

__D__8.Physiological needs must be met
a.|by caretakers.|c.|in order to be happy.|
b.|by the environment.|d.|in order to survive.|

__C__9.An animal has requirements to eat and drink. A species must reproduce. Behavior is organized to maintain the proper temperature. These are all examples of a.|learned behavior.|c.|survival needs.|

b.|unconscious motives.|d.|preferences.|

___C_10.Needs give rise to
a.|pleasure.|c.|drives.|
b.|pain.|d.|experience.|

__A__11.Hunger is to _______ as food deprivation is to _______. a.|desire; motive|c.|incentive; drive|
b.|drive; need|d.|motive; desire|

__B_12.A need for approval may cause an individual to
a.|withdraw from others.|c.|seek to please others.|
b.|fear rejection.|d.|go without food.|

__B__13.A high need for achievement would drive a person to a.|distraction.|c.|avoid work.|
b.|work hard.|d.|turn down a promotion.|

___A_14.Lower car insurance rates serve as a(n) __________ for good driving. a.|incentive|c.|stimulus|
b.|drive|d.|motive|

__A15.Instinctual behavior is indicative of
a.|unlearned responses.|c.|species-specific responses.|
b.|genetically transmitted behaviors.|d.|all of these|

__A__16.The observation that birds reared in isolation from other birds have the capacity to build nests without observation or learning experience provides evidence for the a.|nurture theory.|c.|needs theory.|

b.|evolutionary perspective.|d.|learning theory.|

__C_17.According to William James, humans have instincts that foster a.|survival.|c.|intelligence.|
b.|social behavior.|d.|survival and social behavior.|

__B__18.The individual responsible for describing the drive-reduction theory was a.|Sigmund Freud.|c.|Richard Solomon.|
b.|William James.|d.|Clark Hull.|

__D__19.According to Hull, the motivation to avoid touching a hot iron is a(n) a.|primary drive.|c.|instinct.|
b.|acquired drive.|d.|reduced drive.|

__C__20.An infant places a coin in his mouth. This probably demonstrates a(n) ________ drive and the lack of a(n) ________ drive. a.|acquired; primary|c.|primary; acquired|
b.|primary; instinctual|d.|learned; acquired|

__C__21.According to drive-reduction theory, _________ trigger arousal and activate behavior to reduce the tension. a.|instincts|c.|drives|
b.|homeostasis|d.|stimulus motives|

__B__22.According to drive-reduction theory, the drive to accumulate wealth is described as a(n) a.|primary drive.|c.|biological need.|
b.|acquired drive.|d.|fear.|

___A_23.The tendency toward homeostasis or a steady state would cause a.|a tired person to sleep.|c.|a smart person to write a book.| b.|a rich person to give money away.|d.|a poor person to seek work.|

___C_24.The...
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