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ROLE OF BIRADARI SYSTEM IN POWER POLITICS OF LAHORE: POST-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD

A thesis submitted for candidature of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

By

Muhammad Ibrahim

2009
Department of Political Science & International Relations Bahauddin Zakariya University

MULTAN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The idea to initiate research on biradari politics of Lahore is given by Dr. Khalid Aftab, the Vice Chancellor Government College University Lahore. I thank him for setting me on this path. He always encouraged me and continually guided me in spite of his heavy official responsibilities. I owe a great debt of gratitude to him. I owe an inestimable debt of gratitude to Professor Francis Robinson, Royal Holloway College University of London. He is so kind, generous and encouraging who actually trimmed me and my research on right path. He spared ample time for me even of his very busy schedule and after every meeting with him I felt a new energy and enthusiasm in myself. I have deep regards for my supervisor Professor Ishtiaq Ahmed Chaudhry. He continually guided me. His valuable advice helped me in giving a final shape to the thesis. I am fortunate to find friends at London whose support in initiating my research is a great worth to me. Dr Avril Powell (SOAS), Markus Daechsel (Royal Holloway College), Yasmin Khan (Royal Holloway College), Amna Khalid (Oxford), Ravindar Kaur and Justine Taylor (archivist, Honourable Artillery Company). Many thanks to them for their long discussions and listening patiently to my research work at the cafeteria of British Library London. I would like to express my deep regards for Professor Gilmartin, Ian Talbot and Mathew Nelson those gave me new ideas and approach towards the study of biradari politics. Colleagues in the History Department at Government College University Lahore my thanks to: Dr. Tahir Kamran (Head Deptt. of History), Dr. Farhat Mehmood (Former Head of the Deptt. of History and the senior visiting Professor), Hussain Ahmed Khan, Tahir Jamil, Waheed Usmani and Professor Mehmood Bazmi (Punjabi Deptt). The staff of India Office Library (London) helped me much and my special thanks to Mr. John and Zulfiqar Bokhari. For support in Lahore, my thanks to: Adrees Hanif (Naib Nazim, Lahore Municipal Corporation), Professor Aslam Tariq, Dr Alam Khan, Shoab Khurram, (Superintendent of Police), Khashnood Khan, (LMC – He died during my research), Anwar Kadwai, (Daily Jang), Shafique Mirza (Daily Jang), Naeem Mustafa (Daily Jinnah), Yaseen Mughal and most important Omar Misbhaur Rehman For hospitality and companionship in London my thanks to: Saddique Akbar, Imran Bashir, Munir Marth, Katie Hyman, John Hyman, Ali Zaman and Mahaesh. I am thankful to The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan in sponsoring me for my research study at Royal Holloway College University of London.

Finally I would like to express my sincere thanks to my wife Asma Magsi and daughters, Nashmia, Ghania and Bakhtawar those suffered greatly because of my absence from Pakistan. Particularly my daughters tolerated my eight months separation at very early age.

Contents
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………

Chapters
I. Short Abstract ………………………………………………………………(i)

II.

Introduction …………………………………………………………….........1 Imposition of colonial rule and the making of the biradari system in 19th century Punjab………………………………………………………………14

III.

IV.

The emergence of the public sphere and how the biradaris interact with it (A) The emergence of the public sphere…………………………………….52. (B) The biradaris and their engagements with the public sphere.

V.

Displacement and Development: The challenge of refugee settlement and the biradari response from 1947-1970………………………………………….85

VI.

The challenge of industrialization and the biradari response 19471999…….......................................................................................................112

VII.

Living in the City: The challenge of...
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