Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750-1000
1) Describe the contribution of the Muslims and the Vikings to Early European civilizations. Muslims: The first great wave of Muslim expansion had ended at the beginning of the eighth century. Gradually, the Muslims built up a series of sea bases in their occupied territories in North Africa, Spain, and Southern Gaul and began a new series of attacks in the Mediterranean in the ninth century. They raided the southern coasts of Europe, especially Italy, and even threatened Rome in 843. Vikings: by far the most devastating and far-reaching attacks of the time came from the Northmen or Norsemen of Scandinavia, also known to us as the Vikings. The Vikings were a Germanic people based in Scandinavia and constitute, in a sense, the final wave of Germanic migration. Why they moved is not very clear to historians. Two features of Viking society help explain what the Vikings accomplished. First of all, they were warriors. Second, they were superb shipbuilders and sailors. Their ships were the best of the period. The Vikings were also daring explorers. By the tenth century, Viking expansion was drawing to a close. The Viking raids and settlements also had important political repercussions. 2) Identify and compare the medical practices of the Middle Ages by the Anglo-Saxon physicians to those of the Greeks and Romans. The practice of medicine in early Anglo-Saxon history is not relegated to the backwards world of hocus-pocus magic and spells, as it often thought, but is rather a very serious discipline. Practitioners of the science were learned physicians and, as the evidence suggests, had two main methods for the rational treatment of the sick: 1) a pharmacopoeia consisting of plant origin, and 2) surgery. Magic is often associated with the medicine of early Anglo-Saxon period on account of a major text, The Lacnunga, which survives from the period that mixes both medicine and magic. Medicine (Greek): The scientific...
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