Western Civilization

Topics: Plough, The Creation of Adam Pages: 2 (445 words) Published: May 26, 2013
The four factors that led to the economic boom in the 12th and 13th century were agricultural revolution, expansion of cities, advances in transportation networks and creation of new business techniques. These four factors contributed to the flourishing medieval cities. The agricultural revolution and expansion of cities allowed for populace increase and growth of cities. These factors helped the profitable boom while allowing residents to benefit from them. Advances in transportation networks and the creation of new business were just as important for trade and transporting goods which proved costly. Technical innovations formed the agricultural revolution, which amplified the amount of food available. With more food available, people were better nourished than they had been in more than 500 years, and the population began to grow (Levack, Muir & Veldman, 2011, p. 300). The population grew so quickly that Europe went from 14 million people in the seventh century, to 74 million in 1300, and continued to grow a possible 500 percent by the fourteenth centuries. The prized possession of the agricultural revolution was the carruca, a heavy plowing tool that required six to eight horses to maneuver it; however the carruca cut deeply into the dirt allowing minerals to surface for plant development. As no peasant family could afford this many animals the farmers would come together creating a plow team which required communal planning and collaboration. With Europe plummeting in size, communities proved to be a handful for newly flourishing authority figures. In many places the citizens of the new enlarged towns attempted to rid themselves of their lords to establish self-rule or, at least, substantial autonomy for their city (Levack et al., 2011, p. 302). In the northern central Italy, groups known as communes formed, they seize control of surrounding areas and created a culture of self-rule. Although not all democratic, the communes created institutions which...
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