Welding Parameters

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Optimization of different welding processes using statistical and numerical approaches – A reference guide

Abstract
Welding input parameters play a very significant role in determining the quality of a weld joint. The joint quality can be defined in terms of properties such as weld-bead geometry, mechanical properties, and distortion. Generally, all welding processes are used with the aim of obtaining a welded joint with the desired weld-bead parameters, excellent mechanical properties with minimum distortion. Nowadays, application of design of experiment (DoE), evolutionary algorithms and computational network are widely used to develop a mathematical relationship between the welding process input parameters and the output variables of the weld joint in order to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired weld quality. A comprehensive literature review of the application of these methods in the area of welding has been introduced herein. This review was classified according to the output features of the weld, i.e. bead geometry and mechanical properties of the welds. Article Outline

1. Introduction
2. Weld-bead geometry
2.1. Factorial design
2.2. Linear regression
2.3. Response surface methodology
2.4. Artificial neural networks (ANNs)
2.5. Taguchi method
2.6. Combination of two techniques
2.7. Other techniques
3. Mechanical properties
3.1. Factorial design
3.2. Response surface methodology
3.3. Artificial neural networks
3.4. Taguchi method
3.5. Combination of two techniques
3.6. Other techniques
4. Comparison between the optimization techniques
5. Conclusion
References

Experimental investigation of explosive welding of cp-titanium/AISI 304 stainless steel

Abstract
In explosive welding process, the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallurgical bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. This paper presents the analytical calculation for determination of weldability domain or welding window. The analytical calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. The welding conditions are tailored through parallel geometry route with different explosive loads. The study was also conducted to consider the effects of explosive loading on the bonding interface and the characterization of explosive welding experiments carried out under different conditions. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth interface to a wavy one occurs with increase in explosive load. Scanning electron microscopy studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials, but local melted zones were also encountered in the front slope of waves in the interface at high explosive loads. XRD studies detected no intermetallic phases for specimen welded at low explosive load. Article Outline

1. Introduction
2. Analyses
2.1. The smooth–wavy transition criteria
2.2. Weldability window
3. Experiments
3.1. Experimental procedures
3.1.1. Materials and explosive joining
3.1.2. Microstructure work
3.2. Results and discussion
3.2.1. Metallographic studies
3.2.2. SEM studies
3.2.3. XRD studies
4. Conclusions
References

The effect of process parameters on penetration in gas metal arc welding processes

Abstract
In this study, the effects of various welding parameters on welding penetration in Erdemir 6842 steel having 2.5 mm thickness welded by robotic gas metal arc welding were investigated. The welding current, arc voltage and welding speed were chosen as variable parameters. The depths of penetration were measured for each specimen after the welding operations and the effects of these parameters on penetration were researched. The welding currents were chosen as 95, 105, 115 A, arc voltages were chosen as 22, 24, and 26 V and the welding speeds were chosen as 40, 60 and 80 cm/min for all experiments. As a result of this study, it was obvious that increasing welding current increased the depth of...
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