Part 1: Define each of the following terms as they are used in the context of the study of personality (20 pts.)
|The unconscious |All the thoughts,ideas, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware. | |Collective unconscious |The level of unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species. | |Unconditional positive regard |The full acceptance and love of another person regardless of his or her behavior. | |Extrovert |An outgoing person who is more interested in other people and what goes on around him/her than in | | |his/her own thoughts or feelings | |Persona |The mask we wear to represent ourselves to others. | |Compensation |The person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses. | |Fixation |A partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development. | |Personality trait |Dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways. | |Rational individuals |People who regulate their actions by thinking and feeling. | |Introvert |People who usually focus on their own thoughts and feelings. |
Part 2: Complete the following sentences: (20 pts.)
|1. According to Freud, fully adult behavior is governed not only by reality, but also by the individual's conscience or by the | |moral standards developed through interaction with parents and society. | |2. In Freud’s theory, the only personality structure present at birth is the id,and is completely unconscious. | |3. Jung divided people into two general attitude types, which are introverts and extraverts. | |4. According to Erikson, failing to resolve early life crises would make later adjustments more difficult. | |5. Horney believed that the most important influences in shaping personality are environmental , social factors and human | |relationships as a child. | |6. Researchers studying abnormal and dysfunctional personality traits have confirmed that genetic factors, play a significant role | |in shaping these personality traits. | |7. Psychodynamic theorists prefer to use projective tests when evaluating personality because they believe responses are less | |likely to be faked. | |8. Researchers studying the influence of optimism vs. pessimism on health found that | |9. According to Rogers, a fully functioning person is one who are brought up with unconditional positive regard. | |10. Some factors that can complicate the process of measuring personality are fatigue, a desire to impress the examiner. The fear | |of being tested can affect a person's behavior in the personality assessment situation. |
Part 3. Match the concept with the theorist who proposed it. (10 pts.)
|Inferiority complex |Alfred Adler | |Archetypes |Carl Jung...