University of Phoenix
Information Systems Strategy and Leadership
February 27, 2006
According to Horner (1997), "In some cases, leadership has been described as a process, but most theories and research on leadership look at a person to gain understanding." According to Wren (2004), "People found advantages to forming and working together in groups." (p. 6). Classical Leadership started approximately the early 1800's around the time of the Industrial revolution. The Modernism Era was a new step forward in the studies of management. This model deals with the flexibility in the management.
According to Horner (1997), "In some cases, leadership has been described as a process, but most theories and research on leadership look at a person to gain understanding. Leadership is typically defined by the traits, qualities, and behaviors of a leader." These are what make a leader, the ability to motivate their employees for their causes or goals. Leadership has changed throughout history, and leadership evolved as the needs arose. When the times and industries changed, so did the approaches to leadership models.
Leaders had studies conducted to see how they could best manage their resources, the employees. Through the studies of the environment, the job functions, and employees' leadership evolved.
Pre-Classical Leadership Model
According to Wren (2004), "People found advantages to forming and working together in groups." (p. 6). This shows that humans found advantages in joining groups for basic needs as survival and protection. Even in those early times, there was a hierarchical structure in place to be able to coordinate group activity. "Before industrialization, organizations were primarily the household, tribe, church, military, and government." (p.13) Throughout time and through the different regions of the world, different cultures used similar methods of leadership to obtain common goals. Wren (2004) wrote about these different societies. Near East The earliest set of laws were to govern business and organizational activities. Far East The Chinese military used soldier subdivisions and wrote up battle plans for the military. Egypt The Egyptians had established limits for supervisors to manage. The even used this supervisor hierarchy when they monitored the rise of the Nile River. Hebrews Moses learned of the Egyptians Rule of 10' while in captivity. He was able to set up people to handle the administration of justice. Greece They were anti-work and felt that work was for the slaves and less respectable citizens. In fact, they gave low esteem to manual and trade occupations. Rome The Romans used a factory system for manufacturing of items for use in their military and sold as exports. They also developed a trade system and developed a system of measures and weights for commercial standardization.
Classical Leadership Model
Classical Leadership started approximately the early 1800's around the time of the Industrial revolution. Frederick Taylor's, Scientific Theory, was primarily for organizational efficiency and systemization (Wren, 2004, p. 119). Taylor, throughout his experience, worked to make sure that the workers were as efficient as they were productive. The scientific approach, he undertook, was to break down the pieces of the manufacturing process leading to the ability to get more from the workers. Taylor's background experience led many organizations to hire him and methodically reorganize their management and group structures. Not only did the studies bring about efficient productivity, employee wages increased. The scientific methods used to measure employee productivity were attacked and Taylor had to defend his position, measuring productivity was to benefit the employees, not the employer. Even now, the view of Taylor is as an important figure in management study (p. 151), years after...