Instructions: Type your answers IN BOLD, following the selected Checkpoint questions.
1. What is the basic difference between anatomy and physiology? (p. 2)
ANSWER: Anatomy is the study of body structure and Physiology is the study of body function.
2. Define each of the following terms: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, system, and organism. (p. 6)
ANSWER: atoms, the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions
molecules, two or more atoms joined together.
The cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body.
Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
Organs usually have a recognizable shape, are composed of two or more different types of tissues, and have specific functions.
A system consists of related organs that have a common function.
All the systems of the body combine to make up an organism.
3. How are negative and positive feedback systems similar? How are they different? ANSWER: The basic difference between negative and positive feedback systems is that in negative feedback systems, the response reverses a change in a controlled condition, and in
positive feedback systems, the response strengthens the change in a controlled condition.
4. Describe the anatomical position and explain why it is used. (p. 15)
ANSWER: In the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward. Scientists and health-care professionals refer to one standard anatomical position and use a special vocabulary for relating body parts to one... [continues]
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