Instructions: Type your answers IN BOLD, following the selected Checkpoint questions. Week 1
1.What is the basic difference between anatomy and physiology? (p. 2) ANSWER: Anatomy is the study of body structure and Physiology is the study of body function.
2.Define each of the following terms: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, system, and organism. (p. 6) ANSWER: atoms, the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions
molecules, two or more atoms joined together.
The cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body.
Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function. Organs usually have a recognizable shape, are composed of two or more different types of tissues, and have specific functions.
A system consists of related organs that have a common function. All the systems of the body combine to make up an organism.
3.How are negative and positive feedback systems similar? How are they different? ANSWER: The basic difference between negative and positive feedback systems is that in negative feedback systems, the response reverses a change in a controlled condition, and in positive feedback systems, the response strengthens the change in a controlled condition.
4.Describe the anatomical position and explain why it is used. (p. 15) ANSWER: In the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward. Scientists and health-care professionals refer to one standard anatomical position and use a special vocabulary for relating body parts to one another so there is no confusion.
5.What are the various planes that may be passed through the body? Explain how each divides the body. ANSWER: Asagittal plane (SAJ-i-tal; sagitt- = arrow) is a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides. More specifically, when such a plane passes through the midline of the body or organ and divides it into equal right and left sides, it is called a midsagittal plane. If the sagittal plane does not pass through the midline but instead divides the body or an organ into unequal right and left sides, it is called a parasagittal plane (para- = near). A frontal plane or coronal plane divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions. A transverse plane divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions. A transverse plane may also be called a cross-sectional orhorizontal plane. Sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes are all at right angles to one another. An oblique plane, by contrast, passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane and a sagittal plane or between the transverse plane and the frontal plane.
6. Compare the meanings of atomic number, mass number, ion, and molecule. (p. 29) ANSWER: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atom's atomic number The total number of protons plus neutrons in an atom is its mass number. If an atom either gives up or gains electrons, it becomes an ion when two or more atoms share electrons, the resulting combination of atoms is called a molecule. 7. What functions does water perform in the body? ANSWER:
Water is an excellent solvent
Water participates in chemical reactions.
Water absorbs and releases heat very slowly.
Water requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas.
Water serves as a lubricant
8. Why is ATP...