Ways of Expressing Future Actions. Diachronic and Synchronic Analysis

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………….………..4 1. THEORETICAL SURVEY..………………………….……..........................5 1.1. Ways of expressions future actions. Diachronic approach...........................5 1.2. The synchronic analysis. Future tenses.........................................................9 1.3. Forms of expressing futurity……………......................................…….....14 2. LINGUISTIC INVESTIGATION................................................................. 18 2.1. Analysis of ways of expressing future actions.......…………………….....18 CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………........................................23 Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
There are many ways to talk about the future. Languages can employ various strategies to convey future tense meaning. The concept of the future, necessarily uncertain and at varying distances ahead means that the speaker may express the future in terms of probability, intent. In grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future (in an absolute tense system), or to happen subsequent to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future (in a relative tense system).

A given language can exhibit more than one strategy for expressing future tense. In addition, the verb forms used for the future tense can also be used to express other types of meaning. There is a common belief that the only way to express the future in English is to use the two little modal auxiliaries "will" and "shall". Sure they play a major part in this function but there are other ways of expressing the future. What are they? What are the distinctions between them? This survey will help to understand.

The survey contains the historical approach of expressing Future actions, the description and the examples of usage of Future tenses and word combinations which denote future actions, covering all the important details and distinctions. The theoretical survey contains examples in order to illustrate the ways and analyze origin and usage of tenses and word combinations..

There are lots of ways of expressing future events. But each of them has its own peculiarities with differences of meanings. That's why the question of ways of expressing future actions remains extremely important for all people who study the English language. The survey is pretended to be helpful in learning the ways of expressing future events.

1.THEORETICAL SURVEY
1.2 Expressing future time. Diachronic approach.
Old English did not have a future tense, but because the verbs shall and will hint at one, they became modal verbs used for this purpose. No progressive (or Continuous) tenses were used, they were invented only in the Early Middle English period. Such complex tenses as modern Future in the Past, Future Perfect Continuous did not exist either.

Future actions were expressed by the Present forms, just sometimes using verbs of modality (cunnan (can),sculan (shall), magan (may)etc), willan (lit. "to wish to do") or sculan (lit. "to have to do"). sculan (shall)

Pres. Past
Ind. Subj. Ind. Subj.
Sg. 1 sceal sceolde
2 scealt } scule sceoldost } sceolde
3 sceall sceolde
Pl. sculon sceoldon sceolden
willan (“wish to do”)
Pres. Past
Ind. Subj. Ind. Subj.
Sg.1 wille wolde
2 wilt } wille woldest } wolde
3 wile wolde
Pl. willaþ willen woldon wolden
Participle I willende
cunnan (can)
Pres. Past
Ind. Subj. Ind. Subj.
Sg. 1 cann cúþe
2 canst } cunne cúþest } cúþe...
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