Tammy L. Holman
University of Phoenix
Theories and Models of Nursing Practice
July 1, 2010
Watson's Theory of Human Caring
With many changes in our health care systems today I believe nurses and our patients are suffering as a result of all the financial restructuring. Despite the hardships of administrative numbers, hospital nurses continue to provide care, practice the core of nursing, and maintain the caring model. To assist us in providing quality care we have theorists like Jean Watson that will take us back to our roots of the ideal nurse and stellar patient care. In this paper I will describe Jean Watson’s background of her theory, and provide concepts of her theory. In addition, I will relate her theory to person, health, nursing and environment of the caring moment and provide a transpersonal relationship and relate the factors within my experience.
Background and concepts of Watson’s Theory Dr. Jean Watson was born in West Virginia and moved to Boulder, Colorado in 1962. She attended the University of Colorado and earned a bachelor of science in nursing and psychology. Jean continued and received her master’s degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing. In addition, she earned her Ph.D. in education psychology and counseling. She taught at the University of Colorado School of Nursing and is the founder of the Center for Human Caring in Colorado. She has written many books discussing her philosophy and theory of human caring. The three major elements of Watson’s theory are the carative factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion/caring moment (Cara, 2003). The carative factors were developed in 1979, and last rewritten in 1988. They are the basic foundation and core of nursing today. 1. Humanistic-altruistic system of value.
3. Sensitivity to self and others.
4. Helping-trusting, human care relationship.
5. Expressing positive and negative feelings.
6. Creative problem-solving caring process
7. Transpersonal teaching-learning
8. Supportive, protective, or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment. 9. Human needs assistance.
10. Existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces.
The carative factors are used as a guide for nurses. They also are an attempt to “honor human demensions of nursing work and the inner life world and subjective experiences of the people we serve” (Cara, 2003). The Transpersonal Caring Relationship is a nurse’s dedication to raise and maintain self worth and self regard. This relies on the “nurses caring consciousness to preserve and honor the embodied spirit, thereby not reducing the patient to a moral status of an object” (Favero, 2009). Within this relationship of the nurse/patient the caregiver goes beyond one’s won ego and reaches a deeper connection with the patient to promote a positive health outcome for the patient. While doing so the person being care for maintains dignity, harmony, and felt protected. The third element of Jean Watson’s theory is the Caring Occasion/Caring Moment. According to Watson a caring moment starts as soon as the caregiver enters the room. A rapport is immediately formed with the one being cared for. Watson calls this the human-to-human transaction. At this immediate point the nurse/patient are influenced by their actions within the relationship thereby, acting upon and now becoming part of his/her own past events. When this transpires the mind, body, and spirit will expand the boundaries of openness in which offers human capabilities. Jean Watson’s theory assumptions related to person, health, nursing, and environment
Watson defines the person as of the world and using mind, body, and. This will impact the concept of self and the person who is unique and able to make choices. If the...