WATERMARKING RELATIONAL DATABASES
Dept.of Computer Engineering, SVIT,Vasad, Anand,Gujarat, INDIA ¹mayurirathva@gmail.com and ²Gurcharan_sahani@yahoo.com
Uptil now most of the work is done on image, video, audio.but today the Database watermarking becomes the research topic because of the increasing the use of relational database systems. Which deals with the legal issue of copyright protection of database systems. .Watermarking is an information hiding technique which is used to embed a mark within some host content. In this paper,we have focused on the review of four relational database watermarking techniques proposed by researchers [R.Agarwal & Jerry Kiernan, ZHU Qin, Brijesh B. Mehta, A.Odeh and A. Al-Haj].
Database Security, Database Watermarking, Multi-place Watermarking, Copyright Protection.
Watermarking was introduced for image processing and then it extended for security of text and multimedia data.Now days, it is also used for software and database. There are two phases of the Database Watermarking Techniques. Watermark Embedding and Watermark Verification. During watermark embedding phase, a private key K (known only to the owner) is used to embed the watermark W into the original database. The watermarked database is then made publicly available. To verify the ownership of a suspicious database, the verification process is performed where the suspicious database is taken as input and by using the private key K the embedded watermark is extracted and compared with the original watermark information. The novel approach for the copyright protection for outsourced database for the watermarking,In which watermark is embedded into the secret key and the chaotic random series.for the detection process there is no need of original database and to judge the copyright,we can match the watermark rate. Due to differences between multimedia and database we cannot directly use any of the technique as it is for database, which developed for multimedia data. These differences include : • A multimedia object consists of a large no. of bits hence,there is a large amount of space available to hide the watermark.while Database consist of the tuples,each tuple represents a separate object.so,the watermark is spread over these separate objects. 71
DOI : 10.5121/ijcsea.2013.3107
International Journal of Computer Science, Engineering and Applications (IJCSEA) Vol.3, No.1, February 2013
The change in a relative spatial/temporal positioning of multimedia object remains unchanged.while in case of database ,updates in database may changes the tuples. Drop or Replace operation is not possible in multimedia object without causing perceptual changes in the object.While, tuples may simply be dropped by delete operation in database.
Watermark is an open problem that aimed to one goal. This goal is how to insert [error/ mark/ data/ formula/ evidence/ so on] associated with a secret key known only by the data owner in order to prove the ownership of the data without lossless of its quality. Agrawal et al. introduce a watermarking technique for numerical data . This technique dependent on a secret key, uses markers to locate tuples to hide watermark bits, hides watermark bits in the least significant bits.
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
The security of relational databases has been a great concern since the expanded use of these data over the Internet. Because data allow unlimited number of copies of an “original” without any quality loss and can also be easily distributed and forged. Hence, Digital watermarking for relational databases emerged as a candidate solution to provide copyright protection, tamper detection, traitor tracing and maintaining integrity of relational data The characteristics for watermarking relational...