Water Puification

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  • Topic: Water purification, Water pollution, Filtration
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  • Published : September 29, 2012
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WASTEWATER RECYCLE, REUSE, AND RECLAMATION – Vol. II - Traditional and Household Water Purification Methods of Rural Communities in Developing Countries - S. Vigneswaran, M. Sundaravadivel

TRADITIONAL AND HOUSEHOLD WATER PURIFICATION
METHODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES
S. Vigneswaran
Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia M. Sundaravadivel
Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia Keywords: Defluoridation, Filtration, Traditional treatment, Water quality, Water treatment

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Contents

1. Introduction
2. Traditional Water Treatment Methods
2.1.
Filtration through Winnowing Sieve
2.2.
Filtration through Cloth
2.3.
Filtration through Clay Vessels
2.4.
Clarification and Filtration using Plant Parts
2.5.
Jempeng Stone Filter Method
3. Appropriate Water Treatment Methods
3.1.
Horizontal Flow Coarse Media Filter
3.2.
Upflow Gravel Filter
3.3.
Two-stage Filter
3.4.
Upflow-downflow Filter
4. Household Water Treatment Methods
4.1.
Filtration and Siphoning Technique
4.2.
Coagulation and Sand Filtration Unit
4.3.
Water Filter Canister
4.4.
Household Slow Sand Filtration Unit
4.4.1. Indian Design
4.4.2. Thailand Design
4.5.
Household Defluoridator
Glossary
Bibliography
Biographical Sketches
Summary

A safe and convenient water supply plays a vital role in public health and well-being of the society. While there are numerous conventional water treatment technologies available, for a huge population in rural areas of developing countries, these systems would be inappropriate or too expensive. All over the world, these rural communities have adopted some simple and rudimentary water treatment techniques that can serve either a community or individual households. Basically, all such techniques aim to remove visible impurities such as leaves, twigs, or large suspended particles from water

©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)

WASTEWATER RECYCLE, REUSE, AND RECLAMATION – Vol. II - Traditional and Household Water Purification Methods of Rural Communities in Developing Countries - S. Vigneswaran, M. Sundaravadivel

collected from unprotected local sources. These traditional water treatment techniques range from simple filtration using a sieve or cloth to clarification and filtration using naturally available stone filters and plant materials. Attempts have also been made to develop simple treatment techniques that can serve households of isolated communities either at household level or at community level. Coarse media filters, gravel filters, coconut fiber filters, etc., are examples of such developments. There are also household techniques available to remove even some specific water pollutants such as fluorides that can greatly enhance the safety of usage of water for drinking purposes in waterscarce regions where there is no other appropriate water source. 1. Introduction

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A safe and convenient water supply is of paramount importance to human health and the well-being of any society. There exist numerous high technology systems to purify water. But for a huge proportion of population in the developing world that lives in the rural areas, such systems would be inappropriate or too expensive. These rural populations of developing countries adopt some techniques with a low level of mechanization to suit their own situation. The special features involved in such traditional treatment methods are worth considering for dissemination, before general technological solutions based on wider experience are proposed for these communities. The traditional water treatment techniques can be found either serving a small rural community as a whole or individual households. This article collates some of these traditional and household techniques that are widely used in rural areas of developing countries...
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