4.2. Environmental impact
5.1.2. Recycled wastewater
List of References
List of Figures
Figure1: Areas of physical and economic water scarcity
Figure2: Australian rainfall deciles-1 June 2001 to 31 May 2009
Figure3: Distributed water use-Australia, 2008-2011
List of Tables
Table1: Water supply capacity and desalination status for some Australian urban centres
Table2: Targets set for increase in recycled wastewater use in major Australian cities
Table3: Annual cost of water example treatment technology: SWRO(with a power plant)
Table4: Capital expenditure under recycling scheme and operating expenditure and services delivered under recycling scheme
Table5: Desalination project net GHG emission zero balance
Table 6: Greenhouse gas emissions in Desalination and Recycling
Water scarcity occurs in arid and semi-arid regions which mainly located in North Africa, the Middle East, south America, as well as Australia. Those areas suffer by very limited rainfall, evaporation because of high temperatures, lack of natural clear water to supplies their populations’ need and poor governance in water(International Water Management Institute( IWMI),2007).
Water is vital and life-sustaining resources for human use in household, agriculture and industry, however, one-third of total land surface in the world classed as physical and economic water-scarce areas (see Figure 1)and over 1.2 billion people live in physical water-scarce areas(The Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture,2007). A similar point also made by WWF(2007) that 1.1 billion people lack access to water and only around 1% of all water found on planet is easily accessible for human use. Consequently, these nations are looking at how to provide water more sufficiently, economically, efficiently as well as environmentally-friendly. The aim of this report is to explore two water provision approaches for dry lands and mostly take Australia as an example.
Figure 1: Areas of physical and economic water scarcity
Source: International Water Management Institute
As Australia, apparently, is one of the water-stressed country as it has been severely affected by above drought condition, its expansion in water demand and population growth cause currently experiencing water shortages. The Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, south Queensland as well as west Western-Australia are the areas with rainfall under 4 deciles ranges during from 2001 to 2009(see Figure 2) which means lack of natural freshwater. Figure2: Australian rainfall deciles-1 June 2001 to 31 May 2009 Source: Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology.
Water also, obviously , is for satisfaction on human activities ,in particular as agricultural use in Australia. The Australian Bureau of Statistics(2012) proves that the total water use in economy is 7,106 GL in 2010 in Australia and greatly use water for Agriculture with accounted for 36% of total distributed water(2,562 GL) (see Figure 3) while the Water supply industry consumed 21%(1492 GL) (see Figure 3) Water supply industry and followed by Households with constituted 22%(1561GL)(see Figure3). Therefore, in order to meet the needs in supply water, decision on providing water efficiently is the key for Australia.
Figure3: Distributed water use-Australia, 2008-2011 Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 3. Presentation of option
Desalination is one of the water supply method in Australia. It is a technology which can removing salt...