Water Pollution in Vietnam

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Hanoi, Vietnam is Facing the Threats from Water Pollution
With the rapid growth of industrialization in urban cities, the water around them is getting more and more polluted. One time I casually crossed by To Lich River, one of the big rivers in the capital Hanoi, behind the industrial zone. The river water there was polluted seriously and smelt really fetid. A lot of small fishes and other sea creatures were dead and floating on the surface of the river. I was thinking about how people could live near such a polluted environment and eat those poison fishes. They might be in danger. I then stopped thinking and went away because that smell made me nauseated. That was the ordeal. However, the rapid growth of industrialization is not the only cause that leads to water pollution in Hanoi; climate changes and using old-dated technology to treat water also impact significantly on the quality of water. Water pollution has left huge problems in Hanoi. Above all, it affects heath negatively because the polluted water sources may produce an increase in disease such as respiratory diseases, water-borne diseases and intestinal sickness among people who live near that polluted environment. Yet, it also affects other economic activities such as agriculture, aquatic sports, fishery and tourism; and threatens the ecosystem. If water pollution gets more serious in the future, it is going to affect the development of economy and society. So, my motivation for doing this research is that I want people to be aware of how serious this issue in Hanoi by presenting some problems regarding to water pollution that Hanoi; besides, I also present some programs or solutions, both effectively and ineffectively, which Hanoi authorities has carried out. First of all, Hanoi is big city with the rapid growth of industrialization. However, this growth has produced a big problem concerning water pollution. Hanoi is listed among ten cities in the world with the highest level of water pollution (“Health and Environment: Vietnam to Spend” par.4). The problem is showed clearly in the article “Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in River Water of Hanoi, Vietnam Using Multivariate analyses” written by Kikuchi et al. According to the authors, high concentrations of several toxic heavy metals such as Cd, As, Cu, Zn, Pb are detected in the water of Nhue River and one of its tributaries, the To Lich River, in Hanoi. It is caused by untreated domestic and industrial wastewater discharged into the rivers from the factories of mechanical engineering, rubber, soap, tobacco, paper and metal located along these rivers. Relating to the problem that I stated above, another researcher claims that Hanoi is facing the threat of arsenic pollution originated from underground water, rivers water, ponds water and lakes water. The concentrations of arsenic in the river significantly exceeded the Vietnamese drinking water standard for arsenic (Bang et al 466).According to “Rural people provided with water filters to prevent arsenic poisoning”, up to 21 percent of Vietnams population are exposed to arsenic in drinking water at a level above the acceptable 10ppb (or 0.01mg of arsenic per liter) recommended by the World Health Organization. Water containing arsenic at high level would cause many serious disease including skin cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, inborn deformities. Besides industrialization, climate change is also one of the causes resulting in water pollution. According to “Seminar seeks solutions”, the elements of climate changes are changes in temperature, water flows, the transformation of pollutant at catchments and rising sea levels. These changes affect the water quality significantly. To cope with this problem, “Hanoi, December 23 (VNA) The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment on December 23 held a seminar discussing climate changes impacts on water resources in Vietnam and measures to reduce water pollution and maintain...
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