MEANING OF ENVIRONMENT
The word environment is difficult to define .its normal meaning relates to surroundings. The concept is relative to whatever object it is which is surrounded. Therefore, it includes virtually anything. Environment is everything that surrounds you, including the air, the land, the oceans and all living things. The term environment has been explained in environmental protection act 1986 as that which includes water air and land and the interrelationship which exist among and between water, air and land and human beings, other lining creatures, plants, microorganism and property. The act also defines environmental pollution as the presence in the environment of any environmental pollutant. Environmental pollutant is defined as any solid , liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to environment.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater). Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging either to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. During the past few decades Indian industries have registered a quantum jump, which has contributed to high economic growth but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Consequently, ambient air and water quality is seriously affected which is far lower in comparison to the international standards. The problem is worse in he case of water pollution. It is found that one-third of the total water pollution comes in the form of effluent discharge, solid wastes and other hazardous wastes. Untreated or allegedly treated effluents have increase the level of toxins in like cyanide and chromium up to 20 times the safe level in 22 critically polluted areas of the country. The surface water is the main source of industries for waste disposal. It is found that almost all rivers are polluted in most of the stretches by some industry or the other. Although all industries function under the strict guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) but still the environmental situation is far from satisfactory. Different norms and guidelines are given for all the industries depending upon their pollution potentials. In India there are sufficient evidences available related with the mismanagement of industrial wastes. Consequently, at the end of each time period the pollution problem takes menacing concern. The conventional methods so far adopted for the assessment of environmental quality have considered only the aspect of direct pollution output. The sectors with high discharge of direct pollution are given uniform treatment under the category of highly polluting sectors. The difference that arises because of indirect effect during the process of production has been completely ignored. Moreover, most of the studies undertaken in the Indian context have been very broad and aggregative in nature. There have been very few attempts to study the industrial pollution at a disaggregated level. So far no clear-cut estimations have been made to determine the overall effects of the...
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