Water Pollution

Topics: Water pollution, Sewage treatment, Water Pages: 24 (8464 words) Published: May 27, 2013
defination; Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and plants which live in these water bodies. Sources of water pollution:There are many causes for water pollution but two general categories exist: direct and indirect contaminant sources. Direct sources include effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, waste treatment plants etc.. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. In the United States and other countries, these practices are regulated, although this doesn't mean that pollutants can't be found in these waters. Indirect sources include contaminants that enter the water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain water. Soils and groundwaters contain the residue of human agricultural practices (fertilizers, pesticides, etc..) and improperly disposed of industrial wastes. Atmospheric contaminants are also derived from human practices (such as gaseous emissions from automobiles, factories and even bakeries). Contaminants can be broadly classified into organic, inorganic, radioactive and acid/base. Examples from each class and their potential sources are too numerous to discuss here. But few are further discussed here: Sewage and water waste:Domestic households, industrial and agricultural practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. ·Sewage is the term used for wastewater that often contains faeces, urine and laundry waste. ·There are billions of people on Earth, so treating sewage is a big priority. ·Sewage disposal is a major problem in developing countries as many people in these areas don’t have access to sanitary conditions and clean water. ·Untreated sewage water in such areas can contaminate the environment and cause diseases such as diarrhoea. ·Sewage in developed countries is carried away from the home quickly and hygienically through sewage pipes. ·Sewage is treated in water treatment plants and the waste is often disposed into the sea. ·Sewage is mainly biodegradable and most of it is broken down in the environment. ·In developed countries, sewage often causes problems when people flush chemical and pharmaceutical substances down the toilet. When people are ill, sewage often carries harmful viruses and bacteria into the environment causing health problems. Effect of sewage water: The different ways in which sewage pollution affects our life can be found below. These details should offer insights on how to control the menace of water pollution caused by haphazard disposal of sewage into freshwater bodies and oceans.

Effects on Health:Pathogens present in sewage water are responsible for spreading different kinds diseases. Stagnant water fosters the growth of mosquitoes, which in turn causes diseases like malaria. Another disease which originates from contaminated water is typhoid. Sewage water may also contain protozoans like Cryptosporium and Giardia. These pathogens pose a great risk to human health. Therefore, polluted water acts as a host to several pathogenic microbes.Waterrelated diseases:Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic[->0] microorganisms[->1] that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Infection commonly results during bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food, or the consumption of food thus infected. Various forms of waterborne diarrheal disease probably are the most prominent examples, and affect mainly children in developing countries; according to the World Health Organization[->2], such disease account for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY[->3] global burden of disease[->4], and cause about 1.8 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene.The term "waterborne...
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