Continuity of supply
In 2004, water supply was available on average for 18 hours each day in the West Zone of Metro Manila and 21 hours in the East Zone. According to their respective websites, the utility responsible for water supply in the East Zone of Metro Manila increased 24-hour water from 26% in 1997 to 98% in 2007, whereas in the West Zone, 42% of the customers had an uninterrupted supply in 2007. In a 2004 sample of 45 water service providers with different management models and sizes, the National Water Resources Board (NWRB) found an average availability of 21 hours per day. 27 providers offered 24-hour service. Drinking water quality
Especially in urban areas, water quality does not meet the standards set by the national government. As a result, waterborne diseases remain a severe public health concern in the country. About 4,200 people die each year due to contaminated drinking water. Wastewater treatment
Only 5% of the total population is connected to a sewer network. The vast majority uses flush toilets connected to septic tanks. Since sludge treatment and disposal facilities are rare, most effluents are discharged without treatment. According to the Asian Development Bank, the Pasig River is one of the world's most polluted rivers. In March 2008, Manila Water announced that a wastewater treatment plant will be constructed in Taguig. The first Philippine constructed wetland serving about 700 households was completed in 2006 in a peri-urban area of Bayawan City which has been used to resettle families that lived along the coast in informal settlements and had no access to safe water supply and sanitation facilities. -------------------------------------------------
Although water resources become scarce in some regions and seasons, the Philippines as a whole has more than enough surface and groundwater. However, the neglect of a coherent environmental policy led to the actual situation, in which 58% of the groundwater is contaminated. The main source of pollution is untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. Only one third of Philippine river systems are considered suitable for public water supply. It is estimated that in 2025, water availability will be marginal in most major cities and in 8 of the 19 major river basins. Besides severe health concerns, water pollution also leads to problems in the fishing and tourism industries. The national government recognized the problem and since 2004 has sought to introduce sustainable water resources development management (see below). -------------------------------------------------
In 2000, as a whole 28.52 billion m³ of water were withdrawn from various sources in the Philippines, of which 74% were used for agricultural purposes. Industry used another 9%, leaving 17% or 4.8 billion m³ for domestic consumption, resulting in an average water production of 175 liters per day per capita (l/d/c). In a 2004 sample of 45 water service providers, the NWRB found an average consumption of 118 l/d/c. The highest consumption was recorded in the East Zone of Metro Manila with 232 l/d/c.
What are the properties and dangers of water pollutants?
Organic compounds are compounds that consist of long bonds, usually made up of carbon. Many organic compounds are basic fabrics of living organisms. Molecules built of carbon and of carbon and hydrogen are non-polair and have little to no water solubility. They have little to no electrical charge. The behaviour of organic compounds is dependent upon their molecular structure, size and shape and the presence of functional groups that are important determinants of toxicity. It is important to know the structure of organic compounds, in order to predict their fate in living organisms and the environment. The organic compounds that are dangerous to the environment are all man-made and have only existed during the last century.|...