Water Crisis- a Catalyst of Innovation and International Cooperation?

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Theme: Crisis and Opportunity
Topic: Water Crisis- a catalyst of Innovation and International Cooperation

1) Introduction
Nowadays, we have created our own world of technology. Convenience and efficiency are catered through it. Yet, the earth, the natural world, seems to rebel against such artificial world, by sending signals of natural crises to us. In this project, we are going to talk about "How people benefit from Water Crisis" surrounding the theme "Crisis and Opportunity". The water crisis is branched out as two sections, namely water shortage and water pollution.

The amount of water in the world is stable; it just changes its physical forms. Nonetheless, the problem of water shortages still exists. In fact, what we lack is clean water. With rapid advancing of human activities and technology, and unfavorable natural features like uneven distribution of rivers, the water crisis is growingly affecting our lives negatively and takes them at risk. Water is polluted by increasing human activities. Industrial wastes which include heavy metals like mercury and lead, harmful to living things, are illegally dumped into water sources; Sewage is directly deposited into rivers, which normally is a source of clean water. Ultimately, global warming, was elicited by human too, depletes clean water. With changing of climates, some countries face more floods which pollute clean water while other countries face more droughts which cause massive drying out of clean water.

Now, we start worrying about the crisis because water controls our lives tightly as we could not survive without it. On the other hand, people are developing more and more solutions. By approaching the problem optimistically, this ought to turn this crisis into an opportunity so that we and the world can proceed sustainably. Scientists from all around the world have come up with ideas to solve the problem piecemeal.

2) Literature Review
We used secondary research in this paper as there is simply no way for us to conduct our own research on water crisis. We mainly consulted online websites and read some online books. We also read articles from credible magazines such as National Geographic There is also a website called Global Water Intelligence which is a Market-Leading website for the analysis of International water industry.

From these sources, we mainly found out that water is very limited around the world and there are people dying from consuming polluted water or simply dehydration. We also found out that the water crisis brought out some new technologies that changed the water pattern of the world.

Have you ever thought of turning water from your basin into drinking water? Some people may think that it is impossible, or even a disaster. However, in Singapore, scientists have developed some methods, which can change waste water into pure water. The reused water is called the “New Water”.

How to purify used water? Used water is collected from residence, companies, and schools, and then it is purified by three steps. First, it undergoes microfiltration. Large particles can be filtered away in this step. Afterwards, it undergoes reverse osmosis. Differentially-permeable membranes are used in reverse osmosis. These membranes contain tiny holes, which can only allow water molecules to pass through, so contaminated substances, such as viruses, bacteria can be removed. Lastly, ultraviolet light is used as a back-up to ensure the remaining micro-organisms were completely killed. This makes “New Water”.

On the other hand, some people might worry that “New Water” was unclean, and thus may affect the health of citizens. However, research conducted, as shown in figure 1 and 2, the level of organic substance and amount of bacteria in “New Water” was much lower than the local reservoir water. Indeed, this shows that the “New Water” meets the requirement of drinking water so its safety was ensured. Compare to the other sources of water,...
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