Water as a Universal Solvent
* Because of its high polarity, water is able to dissolve most substances.
* In a solution, the positive hydrogen side of water is attracted to the negative parts if the compound it is dissolving while the negative oxygen is attracted to the positive parts
* “Like dissolves like” – describes whether one substance will dissolve in another. Water for example can’t dissolve nonpolar substances
Concentrations on Solutions
* Solvent: The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.
* Solute: The minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
* The ratio of the amount of solute versus the amount of solvent is the concentration of the solution.
* Solutions can be classified by saturation. Solutions become saturated when the solvent has dissolved all the solute it can hold.
* Under special conditions, solutions can become supersaturated – when the solution holds more solute than it normally can at that temperature
* Solutions can be prepared at any concentration. The difference in the concentrations can bring about differences in the properties of the solution.
* Solutions can appear as liquids, solids and gases
Solubility and the Factors that Affect it
* Solubility: Refers to the greatest amount of solute that a solvent will dissolve before the solution becomes saturated. Solubility is affected by temperature, pressure and the nature of the solute and solvent
* The solubility of a substance depends on the temperature of the solution.
* Temperature doesn’t affect the solubility of all solids the same way, but rise in temperature of the solvent negatively affects the solubility of gases.
* The solubility of liquid or solid substances isn’t affected much by pressure, but gas solubility always increases as pressure increased
* A polar solute dissolves in polar solvents and solubility of a nonpolar solute and solvent is high....
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