Water as a Source of Future Conflict in Sa

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
"Fierce competition for fresh water may well become a source of conflict and wars in the future." - Kofi Annan, former U.N. Secretary-General in 2001
Background of the Study
1.Water is directly related with the survival of human kind and it is crucial unlike other resources, because it does not have choices and alternatives. As a consequence of global warming and pollution, importance of water has increased much. Some "2 billion people” already lack water supplies. Water use has risen six-fold over the past 70 years. By 2050, it is estimated that 4.2 billion people live in countries that cannot meet people’s daily basis needs. South Asia is a region of water abundance and scarcity. “Issues concerning water allotment are the basic strategic distress over the state relations billion people will be” (Kshatri 2004, 4). 2.The melted snow of the Himalayas plays an important role in Water Resources of South Asia, which are shared by India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan via several international rivers. South Asia (SA) is facing deficit of; useable water for the existing and future needs, deterioration of water resources, management inefficiencies and development concerns. The infrastructure development and the efforts given, is considered inevitable in the region for the hydropower generation. 3.Although water has been considered as an indispensable means of economic development and social welfare, greater need of water resources are the main issues of contention. With the increase in uses of water resources, inter and intra state contest between various countries has surfaced. The South Asian rivers has alternative cycle of excess and scarcity as there use to be a flood and water level decreases in short span of time. Such flexible cycle is leading to conflicts over water-sharing. However, the crisis is precipitated because of the decreasing water quality and the inefficient and the inequitable way the resource is managed and utilized. Throughout India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, water shortages are increasingly triggering conflict. Statement of the Problem

4.Access to water has become a part of many states’ national security concerns, with one group of research (the "Neomalthusians") connecting contest over water as a possible beginning of vicious conflict. Other researcher (Institutionalists or "Cornucopians") are more positive about the impact of water, highlighting the cooperative facet of shared waters and disagreeing that divergence over shared waters are managed better through cooperation than through military threats. Whilst these general schools of thought differ about how differences over water will be managed, though, both identify that disagreements over water are expected to occur. 5.The necessity of water has been emphasized in such a way throughout the world, that states and nations are being dragged into the battle zone to take control of it. May it be for the human survival, agriculture or industrial purpose, water has been put into priority by the nations all over the world. The scholars and the body of scholarships have stated the positive aspects of water keeping a lime light upon the fact about how the ongoing discussion over the control of the water bodies are settled better through table talks rather than the talks with guns and weapons. However, it is more likely that the race for the control of the water body just through the table talks is not likely to be concluded. 6.The growing use of water is the only reason for the depletion of fresh water from the face of the earth. This is the reason why the states and the nations will be put forward into the battle zone just to take control of the remaining water bodies. Which is resulting in the colonization of the water bodies under the perspective of the national security calling it ‘the military claim’? Although, the share of environmental resources as a likely cause to conflict has been the rising...
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