Water and Molecules

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Chapter 8 Water/Minerals
Sunday, March 24, 2013
6:05 PM
 
Minerals- naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous substances; chemical elements.  
Major minerals- essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day. Also called macrominerals.  
Trace minerals- essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day. Also called microminerals.  
Water-The brain is composed of approximately 80% water. It makes up 60% of an adult person's weight. 80lbs of water in a 130lb person.  
Water carries nutrients throughout the body
Serves as the solvent for minerals ,vitamins, amino acids, glucose, and other small molecules Cleanses the tissues and blood of wastes.
Actively participates in many chemical reactions.
Acts as a lubricant around joints
Serves as a shock absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord, joints, and amniotic sac surrounding a fetus in the womb. Aids in maintaining the body's temperature..
 
Water provide and the medium for transportation, acts as a solvent, participates in chemical reaction, provides lubrication and shock protection, and aids in temperature regulation in the human body.  

Solvent- a substance that dissloves another and hold it in solution. Dialysis- a medical treatment for failing kidneys in which a person's blood is circulated through a machine that filters out toxins and wastes and returns cleansed blood to the body. Also called hemodialysis. Water balance-the balance between water intake and water excretion, which keeps the body's water content constant. Dehydration- loss of water.

Water intoxication- a dangerous dilution of the body's fluids resulting from excessive ingestion of plain water. Symptoms are headache, muscular weakness, lack of concentration, poor memory, and loss of appetite. Water losses from the body necessitate intake equal to output to maintain balance. The brain and kidneys regulate water excretion. Dehydration and water intoxication can have a serious consequences.  

Water needs vary greatly depending on the foods a person eats, the air temperature, and himidity, the altitude, the person's activity level, and other factors.  
Mild Dehydration <5%
 
Thirst
Sudden weight loss
Rough, dry skin
Dry mouth, throat, body linings
Rapid pulse
Fainting
Impaired kidney function
 
Severe Dehydration > 5%
 
Pale skin
Blush lips and finger tips
Confusion
Rapid; shallow breathing
Weak, rapid, irregular pulse
 
Chronic Low fluid intake
 
Cardiac arrest
Constipation
Dental disease
Gallstones
Hypertension
Kidney stones
Pregnancy/childbirth problems
Stroke
UTI
 
Factors that increase fluid needs
 
Alcohol consumption
Cold weather
Dietary fiber
Heated environments
Ketosis
Medications (diuretics)
Surgery, blood loss
 
Diuretic- usually a medication, causing increased urinary water excretion; a water pill Hard Water- Water with high calcium and magnesium concentrations. Soft water- water with a high sodium concentration.

Surface water- water that comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs.  
Mineral salts from electrolytes that helps keep fluids in their proper compartments and buffer these fluids, permitting all life processes to take place.  
Buffers- molecules that can help to keep the pH of a solutions from charging by gathering or releasing H ions  
Minerals act as buffers to help maintain body fluids at the correct pH.  
Major minerals includes
Calcium
Chloride
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Sulfate
 
Calcium- mineralization of bones and teeth ;muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting Deficiency- Stunted growth and weak bones in children; bone loss (osteoporosis) in adults Toxicity- Constipation; interference with absorption of other minerals; increased risk of kidney stone formation. Sources- milk, tofu, sardines, broccoli, waffle

 
Phosphorus- mineralization of bones and teeth; part of...
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