water

Topics: Sewage treatment, Water pollution, Water Pages: 4 (1122 words) Published: December 10, 2013
A 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained.[1] The majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time due to improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management. The waste water generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. The uncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions and release pollutants that leaches to surface and groundwater.[1] A 1992 World Health Organization study is claimed to have reported that out of India's 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial sewage treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities.[2] Downstream, the untreated water is used for drinking, bathing, and washing. A 1995 report claimed 114 Indian cities were dumping untreated sewage and the partially cremated bodies directly into the Ganges River.[3] Open defecation is widespread even in urban areas of India.[4][5] This situation is typical of India as well as other developing countries. According to another 2005 report, sewage discharged from cities and towns is the predominant cause of water pollution in India. Investment is needed to bridge the gap between 29000 million litre per day of sewage India generates, and a treatment capacity of mere 6000 million litre per day.[6] A large number of Indian rivers are severely polluted as a result of discharge of domestic sewage. The Central Pollution Control Board, a Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India entity, has established a National Water Quality...
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