Waste Management

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10
Waste Management
Coordinating Lead Authors:
Jean Bogner (USA)

Lead Authors:
Mohammed Abdelrafie Ahmed (Sudan), Cristobal Diaz (Cuba), Andre Faaij (The Netherlands), Qingxian Gao (China), Seiji Hashimoto (Japan), Katarina Mareckova (Slovakia), Riitta Pipatti (Finland), Tianzhu Zhang (China)

Contributing Authors:
Luis Diaz (USA), Peter Kjeldsen (Denmark), Suvi Monni (Finland)

Review Editors:
Robert Gregory (UK), R.T.M. Sutamihardja (Indonesia)

This chapter should be cited as:
Bogner, J., M. Abdelrafie Ahmed, C. Diaz, A. Faaij, Q. Gao, S. Hashimoto, K. Mareckova, R. Pipatti, T. Zhang, Waste Management, In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Waste Management

Chapter 10

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ................................................. 587 10.1 Introduction .................................................... 588 10.5 Policies and measures: waste management and climate ....................................................... 607 10.5.1 Reducing landfill CH4 emissions .......................607 10.5.2 Incineration and other thermal processes for waste-to-energy ...............................................608 10.5.3 Waste minimization, re-use and recycling ..........609 10.5.4 Policies and measures on fluorinated gases ......609 10.5.5 Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation ...............................................609 10.5.6 Non-climate policies affecting GHG emissions from waste ......................................................609 10.5.7 Co-benefits of GHG mitigation policies .............610

10.2 Status of the waste management sector ..... 591
10.2.1 Waste generation ............................................591 10.2.2 Wastewater generation ....................................592 10.2.3 Development trends for waste and ......................... wastewater ......................................................593

10.3

Emission trends .............................................. 595

10.3.1 Global overview ...............................................595 10.3.2 Landfill CH4: regional trends ............................597 10.3.3 Wastewater and human sewage CH4 and N2O: regional trends .................................................598 10.3.4 CO2 from waste incineration .............................599

10.6 Long-term considerations and sustainable development ..................................................... 610 10.6.1 Municipal solid waste management ..................610 10.6.2 Wastewater management .................................611 10.6.3 Adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development in the waste sector .....................613

10.4 Mitigation of post-consumer emissions from waste ......................................................... 599 10.4.1 Waste management and GHG-mitigation technologies ....................................................599 10.4.2 CH4 management at landfills.............................600 10.4.3 Incineration and other thermal processes for waste-to-energy ..............................................601 10.4.4 Biological treatment including composting, anaerobic digestion, and MBT (Mechanical Biological Treatment) ........................................601 10.4.5 Waste reduction, re-use and recycling ..............602 10.4.6 Wastewater and sludge treatment .....................602 10.4.7 Waste management and mitigation costs and potentials .........................................................603 10.4.8 Fluorinated gases: end-of-life issues, data and trends in the waste sector.................................606 10.4.9 Air quality issues: NMVOCs and combustion emissions .........................................................607...
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