Waste Glass as Fine Aggregates

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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
The conversion of solid waste (waste glass) and fibers (bamboo fibers) into construction materials and its capability to fight against chemical weathering will be discussed in this study. Now a day, it is an exciting and innovative technology in the field of engineering. There are many studies had been formulated by researchers on how to minimize or be free in concrete deterioration in an economical way and some are using high-cost materials to defend against deterioration and until now researchers are still searching for the finest and low-cost method yet effective to utilize. Deterioration due to chemical weathering in concrete structures is one of the major problems in construction that makes concrete weakened, unstable, and even steel within the concrete will be deteriorated and can make serious trouble in the future such as collapse or settlement of particular structures. 1

This research paper involved an evaluation of chemical resistance and strength of concretes for the purpose of establishing performance-based specifications for the durability of concrete. Concrete is a widely used materials particularly in the field of construction where engineers are responsible of the process or techniques in the mixture so that they can build robust and safety structures. Despite of being thought as a modern material, concrete has been used thousands of years. We inherit it from the Romans where they are the first people who discovered and used it for their construction of temples, aqueducts and other ancient infrastructures. The word concrete comes from the Latin word concretus, which means “mixed together” or compounded with particular materials; it is commonly comprises with coarse aggregates (gravel), fine aggregates (sand), cement, and water. But usual concrete is not enough to build superior structure that can resist all concrete problems aside of poor manufactured of concrete but considering also the impact of very aggressive environment which is the reason why “admixture” was invented and until now many researchers and scientist are still finding ways alternative materials which is inexpensive but effective to use in particular concrete difficulty, specially deterioration due to chemical weathering that deeply needs efficient and effective admixtures. That is why the researcher comes up to an idea on using waste glass and bamboo fiber as composite admixtures to the concrete. 2

Waste glass is a major component of the solid waste stream in many countries. Glass is a 100% recyclable material with high performances and unique aesthetic properties which make it suitable for wide-spread uses. A type of solid waste that we can actually see everywhere in our daily live which contains silica that makes concrete durable. It can be found in many forms it includes container glass (bottle of soda, milk, liquor etc.), flat glass such as windows, bulb glass and cathode ray tube glass. The specific glass that I actually use as admixture is the Soda-lime glass. This is the most common commercial glass (90% of total production). The chemical and physical properties of soda-lime glass are the basis for its widespread use. It usually contains 60-75% silica, 12-18% soda, and 5-12% lime. Soda-lime glass is resistant neither to high temperatures nor sudden thermal changes, nor to corrosive chemicals such as sulfates and chloride. However, glass may contain destructive alkali-silica reaction due to its high silica constituent. So it is need to limit the amount of silica in adding to the concrete or using alkali free glass. One of its significant contributions is to the construction field where the waste glass was reused for value-added concrete production. Bamboo, on the other hand, are some of the fastest growing plants in the world which belongs to the grass family and can grow to a height of 15 m with diameters varying within the range of 25 to 100 mm. it grows...
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