Was religion the only problem James I and Charles I had with Parliament?
James I was monarch of England from 1603-25. He was also King James VI of Scotland throughout his reign. The previous Queen, Elizabeth I, had no children to rule after she died. So her council wanted to know who would be the next monarch. But she could not tell them due to her critical position as she was ill. They then named her cousin, James VI of Scotland. She then raised her hand to show that she agreed. James was married at the age of 22 in 1589 to Princess Anne of Denmark aged 15. Alongside his wife, James had a special friend called George Villiers. George was born in 1592; he became James’ special friend in 1617 until the king’s death. By 1623 James had swiftly made him Duke of Buckingham; this is the highest known ranking subject outside the Royal Family. After James’ death in 1625 George lived on to mentor Charles I and then later was assassinated in 1627. James I had three surviving children one of which was the son in ear king Charles I of England and Scotland he reigned from 1625 to 49, in which he was executed. In March 1623 Prince Charles travelled to Madrid, Spain in disguise. It was to see about marrying a Spanish princess who was Roman Catholic. October 1623 he retreats unmarried. When Elizabeth died in 1603 she left a stable country for the next monarch. However within 46 years England had executed it king and had suffered a civil war. Some things she left are: • She left England as a world power.
• She left a fair country.
• After Elizabeth the country stopped believing in the divine right in king. • Tolerant religion.
• Super power of the sea.
• She installed suitable trade laws and brought in fish and wool trade. • She chose to rule with a parliament.
• She made England into a well economically developed country. As I mentioned before the marriage of Prince Charles I never took place in 1625. James died and his son became King Charles I. He married a 15-year-old French princess called Henrietta Maria. Parliament was angry; it was a bad start to Charles’s reign. Very soon, Charles was quarrelling with parliament, just as his father had done. The arguments were mostly about religion and money.
Religion was a major cause of problems in parliament.
Examples of this, are:
• First and foremost, laud and church was an important issue and affected some of the population. Laud was the Archbishop of Canterbury and ran all church matters in England for Charles I. Laud deficient to worship in the same manner as Catholics and was a foe of Puritans. Laud did achieve some good re-organisation of the church but he punished puritans for: wearing the wrong robes for church services; for altering the wording of the prayer book. He also censored the press and tried to restrict the sermons so popular with puritans. He instigated severe punishments for crimes against the church such as. 1637 3 puritans (William Prynne, Henry Bruton and John Bastwicke) were convicted before the Star Chamber (a court the king was in charge of and everything went by the kings word.) of publicity criticising church policy. They were each sentenced to life in prison, a heavy fine and loss of their ears. This gained them sympathy with the public and when the time came for their penalty (ears) Londoners laid sweet herbs in their path and gave them cups of wine to show how unpopular laud had become. • The second and last point is about Charles’s I marriage to the Roman Catholic French Princess Henrietta Maria. In may 1626 he married Henrietta Maria and when she moved to England by June she was accompanied by many Catholic priests. This upset the people of England. At this time England was at war with Spain and France was its ally. Charles’ friend the duke of Buckingham ran the war and it went very badly with no success either on land or out at sea.
Although religion was a big problem,...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document