Because conversations need to be organised, there are rules or principles for establishing who talks and then who talks next. This process is called turn-taking.
There are two guiding principles in conversations:
1. Only one person should talk at a time.
2. We cannot have silence.
The transition between one speaker and the next must be as smooth as possible and without a break. We have different ways of indicating that a turn will be changed: * Formal methods: for example, selecting the next speaker by name or raising a hand. * Adjacency pairs: for instance, a question requires an answer. * Intonation: for instance, a drop in pitch or in loudness. * Gesture: for instance, a change in sitting position or an expression of inquiry. * The most important device for indicating turn-taking is through a change in gaze direction. While you are talking, your eyes are down for much of the time. While you are listening, your eyes are up for much of the time. For much of the time during a conversation, the eyes of the speaker and the listener do not meet. When speakers are coming to the end of a turn, they might look up more frequently, finishing with a steady gaze. This is a sign to the listener that the turn is finishing and that he or she can then come in. The instruction that some of us were given at school, "Look at me when you speak to me", is unsoundly based. In normal English conversations, a speaker does not look steadily at the listener but rather may give occasional quick glances. Some people find it impossible to carry on a conversation with someone who is reading the newspaper. We need to be able to see where someone's eyes are directed to know whether we are being listened to. In telephone conversations, where we cannot see eye gaze, we have to use other clues to establish whether the other person is listening to us. The...