Keegan (1993, p. 1) states that warfare is almost as old as man himself. Since the earliest recorded history, there have been wars. Conflict has always been a part of humanity. The reasons for every war will be different but overall, in ancient times, as farming practices and technology improved, human population increased conflict was often over power and resources. The technology to make war also developed. Total human population in the world increased from 50 million in the year 5000BC to 300 million in the year 0AD (United Nations report 1999)
Neiberg (2001, pp. 10-3) tells us that man has been very good at organizing wars during this classical period (to 500AD). Ancient Romans, Greeks, Chinese and Indians all engaged in numerous wars. Also Neilberg (2001, p 14) tells us that ancient armies had high levels of structure, discipline, training and organization. Greek armies, by organizing themselves into phalanxes, could hold off and defeat enemies. The methodologies and technologies of war improved during this ancient period.
Following the classical period, up until the emergence of gunpowder weapons (500AD to 1450AD), the technology of war improved slowly with a shift to cavalry following the invention and widespread use of the stirrups (Neisberg 2001, p. 21). Religion came to be a greater driving force for conflict as illustrated by the expansion of Islam and the crusades from the Christians to stop it. Population expansion resulted in empires growing and clashing with their neighbours. During the period 0AD to 1500AD, world population increased from 300m to 500 million (United Nations report 1999).
From around 1450 gunpowder weapons reached levels of development where the nature of war was changed. Canon was able to break down fortifications. Discipline and training evolved to include tactical formations to suit the single shot gunpowder weapons of the day. Ranks of trained and disciplined soldiers could maintain high rates of fire against an enemy (Neilberg 2001, pp. 36-7). A significant factor in the introduction of gunpowder weapons was that the new weapons we much more costly in human terms (Neilberg 2001, p 43). World population from 1450 to 1800 increased from 500 million to 1 billion (United Nations report...